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The demographic policy of Russia. Socio-demographic policy in Russia

Socio-demographic policy in Russia Is the basic element in the formation of the concept of the country's economy. The level of social welfare within the country and the indicators of its external economic position as a subject of the economic world space depend on the provision of labor resources.

Demographic policy: what is it

The purpose of this sphere of state regulation is to provide the necessary manpower for the country . The state of all the most important forms of social life depends on this: the economy, the quality of life of different social strata of the population, and the level of the country's defense capability. What indicators form the socio-demographic picture of Russia:

  • The level of population reproduction;
  • Dynamic indicators of population size and structure;
  • Mortality / fertility rate;
  • Number of prisoners and divorced marriages;
  • Migration indicators.

All other indicators on the state of society in the state in the dynamics for 10-15 years, on the basis of which the analytical cut is made, identify problems that require immediate resolution, or negative trends and the development of measures to neutralize them.

What is Social Policy?

The goal of social policy is to improve the quality of life of the population through the implementation of social programs and state support for certain groups of the population. A successful social policy is a prerequisite for the achievement of the goal of Russia's demographic policy.

For example, the Maternity Capital program is being implemented with the support of the state and has outlined a good prospect for an increase in the average statistical fertility rates in Russia. However, the social sphere is not always ready to provide conditions in this area. Indicative is the situation with the growth of fertility, which led to Russia's demographic policy. 2013 has revealed a shortage of seats in pre-school educational institutions, this problem remains relevant for the near future. Imbalance can lead to undesirable social consequences. In addition to these negative aspects, the lack of places in kindergartens prevents parents from realizing their full potential in full .

Indicators of population reproduction in Russia

Despite the measures taken to increase the population in Russia over the past ten years, there is a continuing trend towards population depopulation. While the birth rate tends to grow (by an average of 15%), however, high mortality rates of the able-bodied population leave the issue of population reproduction unresolved.

The demographic policy of Russia at the beginning of the century showed its inefficiency. The lowest birth rate was in 2000. In the future, this demographic hole should prove itself by 2020, when the ratio of people of pensionable and working age will reach critical proportions.

It was during the period of the lowest population reproduction that the Concept of Demographic Policy was adopted until 2015 and the prospect until 2025 to create conditions for stabilizing the process of population reproduction.

Migration processes in modern Russia

Due to fundamental changes in the country's economy over the past decades, the reduction in the development programs of the northern regions, the outflow of working-age population from these regions was significant and amounted to more than eight percent of the total population of the Far North (over 1 million people). Observed Serious changes in the proportion of the legal and illegal migration flow of residents of the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). That is why the Concept of Demographic Development sets the task of creating programs to attract promising young specialists from the CIS, the return of compatriots from foreign countries.

Institute of Family and Marriage

The Institute of Family and Marriage is the basic social unit of society. It is in it that the principles of the social structure, culture, views, social views, the direction of the individual are laid.

For successful implementation of social prospects, the family is an indicator of healthy relations. Therefore, Russia's demographic policy relies on the development of the institution of family and marriage. What activities should help strengthen this important social institution? They are stipulated by the program of support of the institution of the family and serve not only the purpose of strengthening it, but also the development of the spiritual and moral foundations of the community cell:

  1. Consultative and psychological support of families, solving the problem of preserving the family and preventing divorce.
  2. Propagation of the value of marriage and the upbringing of children, as well as the admission to the family of children left without parental care.
  3. Reducing the number of abortions.
  4. Raising parental responsibility for the upbringing and development of children.

Concept, program, plan and demographic policy

The concept is an ideological position that is a postulate for all other documents and decisions at the federal, regional and local levels. General vision of the situation of the country's demography and strategic directions in solving identified problems.

The demographic policy of Russia is carried out within the framework of the program in the areas of activity. It is determined by the area of solving problems (protecting maternity and childhood, supporting persons of retirement age, preventing asocial behavior of young people and others) and organizational scales (federal, regional, municipal levels).

The plan is the space-time localization of activity in accordance with the developed program. The plan is expressed in specific figures and dates. By the end of the year, it is subject to analysis against the actual figures to the planned ones.

What are the current priorities

As priorities, according to the adopted Concept, which Russia's demographic policy of 2014 solves for the present period and until 2025, we can single out the following:

  1. Reduced mortality (especially maternal and infant mortality).
  2. Increase the duration of active life of the population to 75 years of age.
  3. Preservation of the dynamics of increasing the birth rate.
  4. Strengthening the institution of the family.
  5. Involvement of labor migrants.

The solution of the set demographic tasks is directly dependent on the effectiveness of social measures aimed at stabilizing economic processes, reducing the stratification of society, creating favorable social conditions and raising the standard of living of the population.

Socio-demographic policy in modern Russia, its significance and perspective

For the effectiveness and predictability of the given parameters, it is important to envisage not only a successful increase in the quantitative indicators of population growth, but also ensure this growth in the quality of social life. The demographic policy in Russia assumes in the period up to 2025:

  • Reduce the mortality of the able-bodied population by at least 1.6 times.
  • Reduce the level of maternal and infant mortality by more than 2 times.
  • To increase the health indicators of the population, to create motivation for a healthy lifestyle.
  • To increase the birth rate by 1.5 times, to achieve the reproduction of the population by the birth of the second and subsequent children.

At the moment, the legality of the provisions that Russia's demographic policy declares is supported by statistical data. The natural growth of the population according to the data of 2012 is noted in forty subjects of the Russian Federation. The population of 143 million people, which was planned for 2015, has already been achieved. But the goals remain relevant.

Demographic policy and the specifics of the mentality in Russia

Thus, Russia's demographic policy, briefly presented in the Concept and deployed in social programs, is a system of influence of the state and social institutions on processes in society with the aim of improving quantitative indicators and demographic development. Demographic policy in Russia does not change, but only develops traditionally Russian traditions in understanding the value of family and family upbringing of children.

The Russian mentality has always contained a spiritually-moral principle of justice and equality in society, accessibility of benefits for all its members.

Based on these priorities, the state policy is doomed to success, as it is identical to the Russian traditional understanding of the relationship between man and society.

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