The distribution of ship pines is a territory dominated by a harsh climate. Pine burs settled in the taiga areas. The mountain massifs were overgrown with pine trees. A lot of them grow in a mild climate, for example, in the Crimea.
Due to its growth in northern latitudes with cold climatic conditions, pine - a coniferous tree - has a unique wood with excellent physical and mechanical properties. The breed belongs to the demanded building materials.
The ship pine belongs to the genus of evergreen conifers. It has a narrow soft or needle needles. Khvoinki collected in small bundles (2-5 pieces each), the humeral ends of short shoots. In matured cones, growing to a length of 3-10 centimeters, hide nuts, which are almost all equipped with wings.
Light-loving trees with a deep and powerful root system, as a rule, form homogeneous plantations - pine groves. For habitat, they prefer dry quartz sands, devoid of fertile humus, peaty soils and sphagnum marshes.
The excellent plasticity of the root system, the intensive development of the roots, their ability to capture significant areas of the soil layer and penetrate into its deep layers, and the ability to master new places with negative properties cause adaptability to various types of soils.
Characteristics of the tree
For the wood of this plant with high straight trunks is characterized by a special strength, hardness and resinity. This is the ideal wood material for shipbuilding. It was from here that the name "ship pines" arose - trees with certain properties. And the forest tracts, where pine grows mostly, are called "ship groves" or "mast forests". Vessels constructed from these trees were called "floating pine".
The height of trees reaching in the girth of a half-meter is often chosen to be 70 meters. On the surface of their slender trunks, there are almost no knots. The increased value of wood of this plant is also in the fact that there are practically no flaws in it, it has a kind of beautiful natural pattern, an original texture.
The color palette of wood is diverse. It largely depends on the conditions where the ship's pine trees grow, photos of which are always impressive. The color is whitish-yellow, reddish and brown. Products from it are of high quality and decorative.
Pine wood has an increased density. It is 1.5 times larger than that of ordinary pines. Also, it is not inclined to buckling, it floats beautifully. The trunks of the cut down plants easily fuse along the rivers that cut the deaf taiga.
The resinous substances that secrete the pine pines in large quantities protect the materials obtained from it (logs, timber, boards, etc.) from rotting, parasitizing individuals and fungi. The structures of them are much more durable than from other types of trees.
Types of ship pines
For the shipbuilding is suitable three varieties of pines: yellow, red (ore) and white (meand). In yellow pines, climbing 50-70 meters up, light, strong, strong and elastic wood. From it, the elements of the mast are made.
The red pine, which has tightened the expanses of the northern Russian strip, its dry places and hills, is used in the manufacture of wooden cladding used in the interior design of sea-going vessels. Decking is made from it. It is inhabited by the inside of the sides, hold spaces, cabin shields and so on.
The wood of white pines, preferring marshy and flooded areas, is used for temporary works. It is used where there is no need to observe special strength and strength. Materials from such wood are suitable for the assembly of temporary forests, templates, stands and other elements. Determine what kind of pine in the picture, photo of the tree is unlikely to help. Wood splits are needed for this purpose.
Use in shipbuilding
Shipbuilders used different parts of the trunks in a special way. The ships were built in accordance with natural signs. Important details were made from a part of the trunk facing north. This made it possible to obtain solid and strong structural elements. After all, the tree from the north side receives a minimum of heat and sun. So, the wood, taken from the north side, is shallow, it is more dense.
The most even wood fibers are endowed with a pine lacking the lower branches. The height of the tree and even, without flaws, the trunks, allowed to receive logs of keels and long boards with an even surface.
Ship-owners of past epochs used not only wood for the construction of water transport, but also resin. They infiltrated it with sails and ropes, patched the grooves in various ships. As a result of this, long-lasting ships with solid equipment were received. Of the tall, slender, mighty pines, ships were built for the fleet of the Russian Empire.
The highest ship pines with strong straight trunks are ideal for making masts of sailing ships. Their incredibly hard and resinous wood is particularly strong in the central part of the trunks, where the core of the tree is located.
The outer layers of the sapwood and nucleus differ in color. The core has a more intense color than the sapwood. Tone coloration of the nucleus depends on the conditions of growth of trees.
Protection of mast forests
Ship's forests have very high requirements since the time of Peter I. They are grown according to certain rules, carrying out strict care. After all, in the front, the smallest 12 vertices (48-54 centimeters) should have such a pine. A photo of a tree of this size perfectly shows its greatness.
The growth of pines to the required values takes quite a long time. In connection with this, under Peter I adopted decrees imposing a ban on cutting down pine forests suitable for shipbuilding. All 12-vertex trees were taken to the reserved plants. For violation of the order, huge fines were imposed. For each autocratically cut down tree, you had to pay 10 rubles fine (while the pood of rye was only 15-20 kopecks).
In addition to the fact that pine forests were attributed to protected forests, Peter I decided to lay mast pine forests. He understood that the ship's pines and oaks grow for centuries. Free deforestation threatened their rapid extermination. To protect the pine massifs from destruction, the emperor established state control over their use.