One of the most dangerous types of natural disasters that a person is unable to either prevent, stop or control is the volcanic eruption. It is due to the constant changes in the composition of the earth's crust, and also because of the movement of its plates. The most dangerous volcanoes of the world on the map can be found in various parts of it. These include Merapi, Santorini, Popocatepetl, Mauna Loa, Rainier, Nyiragongo, Colima, Sakurajima, Koryaksky, Papandayyan, Taal, Ulawun, Santa Maria and many others. They will be discussed in more detail later.
On the island of Java (Indonesia) there is an active Merapi volcano , whose name in translation from the local language means "fiery mountain". Its height is 2914 meters. Nearby is the ancient city of Jyokyarta. The active activity of this volcano, related to the Fiery Pacific Rim, began about four hundred thousand years ago. According to statistics, approximately once in seven years there are large eruptions, and once in six months - small. Along with this, almost all the time he smokes. It should be noted and the fact that for almost seventeen centuries, it is Merapi who heads the list of "The most dangerous volcanoes in the world".
The crater here resembles a huge quarry that was dug up as a result of many explosions of the strongest power. It consists of massive solid rocks, which in the majority of cases are andesites. On the slopes there is a huge number of small cracks-holes, which can be clearly seen in the dark time due to the tongues of the flame of purple-red color.
The last serious eruption of this volcano began in May 2006. For almost a year, several million cubic meters of lava were thrown from the crater, which descended into local villages. As a result of this process, more than one thousand people died. One of the most terrible natural disasters in the history of the volcano dates back to 1906. Then, because of the crevice in the mountain, part of the cone slipped into the valley. After that, there was an explosion of enormous power, which led to the death of a whole civilization - the state of Mataram, which reached a high level of development at that time.
According to geological research, the Santorini volcano is relatively young and appeared about 200 thousand years ago. Over a long period of time, it was clogged with lava, which gradually accumulated in the vent. About 25 thousand years ago, the internal pressure of gases exceeded the strength of fairly soft rocks, which, in turn, led to a strong explosion. After it, the caldera was filled with lava, from which an island was formed, now bearing the same name. The Santorini volcano is not currently active. Its last serious eruption is dated February 20, 1886. On that day a strong explosion occurred, which, according to eyewitnesses, published later, was accompanied by the release of red-hot lava from the sea, as well as steam and ash, rising a few hundred meters high.
The volcano Popocatepetl is well known to every inhabitant of the capital of Mexico, located at a distance of about fifty kilometers from it. The fact is that in Mexico City there are approximately twelve million inhabitants, each of which has the opportunity to see this volcano both from high skyscrapers, and from the courtyards of small houses located in poor areas of the city. The literal translation of its name from the Aztec language means "smoking mountain". Along with this, during the last twelve centuries, there have been no large eruptions from it. Only occasionally a small amount of lava, ash and gases is emitted from the crater. In the twentieth century, the volcano Popocatepetl was characterized by small bursts of activity in 1923 and 1993. The main danger for the people who were associated with them was not so much in the burning lava as in the mud flows that swept everything in its path. They formed as a result of melting on the slopes of glaciers. Much to the happiness of the inhabitants of Mexico City and its suburbs, as a result of the last eruption, the northern slopes were not affected, so none of the people suffered.
The Mauna Loa volcano is active and is located in the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean. Its height reaches 4170 meters. The main feature of this volcano is that it is the largest on the planet in terms of the amount of constituent material taking into account the underwater part (its volume is about eighty thousand kilometers cubic). The most powerful eruptions are accompanied by emissions in the form of fountains of a huge amount of lava. It escapes not only from the crater itself, but also from the sides through relatively small cracks. The height of such fountains sometimes reaches a mark of one kilometer. Under the influence of high temperatures, there are numerous tornadoes that accompany the hot mantle on its way down. According to official documents, the volcano Mauna Loa last erupted in 1984. Since 1912, he has been under constant surveillance. Their main purpose is to warn residents about the impending disaster in the form of a volcanic eruption. For this purpose, a whole volcanological station has been specially created here. In addition to it, there is a solar and atmospheric observatory.
The Rainier volcano is located 87 kilometers from the American city of Seattle. It is part of the Cascade Mountains, where with a height of 4392 meters is the highest peak. At the top are two volcanic craters, whose diameter is more than three hundred meters. Mountain slopes are covered with snow with ice, free of which are the rim and the crater area. The reason for this is the high temperature that operates here. Not all volcanoes of the world can boast of such a solid age as Rainier has. According to geological research, the process of its formation started about 840 thousand years ago.
There is every reason to suppose that because of the snow and ice along with the avalanches, large mudflows appeared here before , causing great damage to the entire surrounding area. Because of their appearance, not only humans died, but also animals with plants. In them the main danger now lies. The fact is that near the deposits of these streams are many settlements. Another serious problem is the presence of a large amount of ice in the upper part. In connection with the constant hydrothermal activity, though slowly, but still weaken. According to geologists, if there is a big selenium, it can move far enough and even destroy parts of Seattle. Moreover, it is possible that such a phenomenon will lead to a tsunami on Lake Washington.
In the northern part of the African state of the Republic of the Congo, on the territory of the Virunga mountains, lies the peak of Nyiragongo. It belongs to the list of "the most active volcanoes in the world", a vivid confirmation of which is the fact that over the past 130 years 34 eruptions of various degrees of power have been officially registered. It should be noted that some of them lasted for years. The last activity of the volcano was noted in 2008. Nyiragongo has a lava, the composition of which differs from others. The fact is that it contains a lot of quartz, so it is highly fluid and liquid. This is the main danger, because the speed of its flow along the mountain slopes can reach a mark of 100 km / h. Not surprisingly, residents of nearby villages have virtually no chance of reacting promptly to the release of lava.
The Nyiragongo volcano lies at an altitude of 3,470 meters above sea level. As for the lake with a red-hot mantle, then deep into the mouth it leaves for a distance of about 400 meters. According to scientists, it contains about ten million cubic meters of cubic lava. According to this indicator, the lake is considered to be the largest on the planet. The level of the lava is never on a permanent place and always fluctuates. The mouth was filled to the very top for the last time in 2002. The result of this incident was the complete destruction of the town of Goma, which was nearby.
The volcano Colima is located in the Mexican state of Jalisco, in the western part of the country, about eighty kilometers from the Pacific coast. In the state it is considered the most active. An interesting feature of it is that it enters a volcanic complex consisting of two peaks of a conical shape. The first of them is almost always under the snow and ice cover and represents the extinct volcano of Nevado de Colima. Its height is 4625 meters. The second peak rises to 3,386 meters and is also known as the "Fiery Volcano."
The Colima crater is small in size, so there is little accumulation of lava in it. At the same time, a high degree of its activity leads to a considerable pressure on the inside, so the hot mantle, along with the gases and ash, is thrown far enough away, and this whole process resembles a real pyrotechnic show. The last serious eruption of this volcano happened ten years ago. The ash that was thrown out of the crater rose then to a height of about five kilometers, and the government decided to temporarily evacuate nearby settlements.
The Sakurajima volcano, located not far from the Japanese city of Kagoshima, is classified as the first category of danger. In other words, its eruption can begin at any second. In 1955, the period of constant activity of this volcano started. In this regard, the nearby Japanese live permanently with readiness for immediate evacuation. To ensure that this can be done promptly and have at least a small amount of time, Sakuradzimoy installed web cameras through which the crater is continuously monitored. None of the modern Japanese are surprised by the holding of permanent exercises on the procedure for dealing with natural disasters, as well as the presence of a large number of shelters. It is not surprising that Sakuradzim is now ranked among the leaders of the list of "The Most Dangerous Volcanoes of the World".
One of the largest eruptions of this volcano in the history of its existence occurred in 1924. A strong earthquake then warned local residents of the impending danger, so most of them managed to evacuate to a safe distance. It was after this natural disaster, as a result of the huge volume of lava poured out outward, the so-called Sakura Island turned into a peninsula. The fact is that it formed an isthmus connecting it with Kyushu, on which the city of Kagoshima is located. For another year, the incandescent mantle slowly poured out of the crater, which led to a significant increase in the level of the bottom. Scientists suggest that its huge caldera was formed under the influence of similar processes that took place more than twenty thousand years ago.
One of the main attractions not only of the Kamchatka Peninsula, but also of the whole of Russia, is the Koryaksky Volcano. He is in his group the highest (3,456 meters), and also one of the most beautiful. The mountain has the form of a classical right cone, so it can safely be called a typical representative of stratovolcanoes. A modern, very rarely functioning crater lies in the western part. It has a depth that is only 24 meters. The ancient muzzle, now filled with a glacier, is in the northern part.
The main feature of the Koryak volcano is now its low activity. In the historical documentation, there are memories of only two of its eruptions. They can hardly be called strong, but they occurred in 1895 and 1956. In the first case, the lava quietly escaped from the vent, and this process was not even accompanied by explosions, so many locals did not even notice what had happened. The languages of those streams on the slopes that are frozen, not even reaching the foot, have survived to this day.
The second volcanic eruption became more expressive. At that time, his awakening was accompanied by a series of tremors. On the slope of the mountain appeared a crack measuring 500 x 15 meters in length and width, respectively. From it, there was a release of gases, ash and other products of volcanic origin. Some time later, the gap was filled with slag and small debris. At the same time, from there came the characteristic sounds that simultaneously resembled squelching, hissing, hooting and whistling. An interesting feature of this eruption was the complete absence of lava. Nowadays, on a volcano, you can see with the naked eye the release of vapors and gases, which occurs almost constantly.
Currently on the Indonesian island of Java there are about 120 volcanoes. Approximately one in four of them is active, in connection with which is a danger to people. Earlier it was already talking about one of their representatives - Merapi. In addition to it, we can not but mention the Papandayan volcano, which is very popular with tourists. This is explained by the presence in its vicinity of a large number of mud sources and geysers, as well as a mountain river flowing along the slope. The fact is that it has a curative effect on the human body. Its temperature is almost 42 degrees.
The volcano is one of the most dangerous and large on our planet. Its crater is located above the sea level at an altitude of 1800 meters. Near the vents of a sharp form sulfur gases mix with a mountain cold mist. It should be noted that there is a road directly to the crater itself. As for the eruptions of Papandayan, the last one was recorded here more than ten years ago.
Of all the active volcanoes on our planet, the smallest is Taal, which is located fifty kilometers from Manila, the capital of the Philippines. On the lake of the same name, it forms an original island, the area of which is about 23 square kilometers. It is not surprising that his appearance was preceded by active volcanic activity. At an altitude of 350 meters above sea level there is a crater inside which a lake with a diameter of two kilometers was formed. Over the past five hundred years, 33 Taala eruptions of varying degrees of power have been recorded. The most disastrous of them in the twentieth century happened in 1911. It led to the death of more than one thousand people. At the same time a cloud of discarded ash of huge dimensions was visible at a distance of 400 kilometers from the volcano. The last eruption dates back to 1965. It killed more than two hundred people.
Despite the high risk of this place, on the shores of the lake are five cities and many small settlements. One can not but note the presence of two power plants that are located and function nearby. Employees of the local seismological institute are constantly studying changes in the state of the volcano in order to prevent the following eruptions. Despite everything, the Taal volcano is considered one of the most popular tourist sites in the Philippines. According to the reviews of tourists who visited it, a unique view of the surrounding area, the sea, as well as the islands, opens from above. You can get here by boat from any town located on the shore of the lake.
Speaking of the most dangerous volcanoes on our planet, one can not help but recall Ulavun, which is mainly composed of basalt and andesite. It is in the territory of Papua New Guinea and is one of those that erupts most often. Its height is 2334 meters. Slopes of the mountain at an altitude of up to one thousand meters are covered with a variety of vegetation. Many years ago it was completely under water. As a result of eruptions that occurred under its surface, almost always there were strong tsunamis. Under the influence of faults of the earth's crust in 1878, the volcano Ulawun rose and became visible above the water.
In 1700, it was first officially recorded its eruption. Then nearby Papua New Guinea sailed the ship, on board which was William Dampier - a famous traveler from Britain. Later, he described in his memoirs this unforgettable process. Another famous eruption of Ulavun happened in 1915. It was so strong that a twelve-centimeter layer of ash covered the village, located fifty kilometers from the epicenter. It is impossible not to note the natural disaster that occurred on May 28, 1937, when a thick layer of ash settled in 120 kilometers from the crater. In general, over the past two hundred years, 22 eruptions of this volcano occurred.
In Guatemala is the oldest active stratovolcano on Earth. It has a height of 3772 meters and a rather complex structure. The diameter of its main cone is ten kilometers. On the south-western slope, you can see a lot of depressions that were formed as a result of eruptions in ancient times. As for the northern slope, the craters and huge potholes are not far from its foot. According to the scientists, about thirty thousand years ago the first eruptions began here.
Local residents called the volcano Santa Maria as "Gagksanul." It should be noted that up to October 24, 1992, he was active and was in a state of sleep for five hundred years. However, the first eruption after that had catastrophic consequences. The explosion was so powerful that it was heard even by the inhabitants of Costa Rica, which is located eight hundred kilometers from here. Moreover, the ashes rose 28 kilometers in height. As a result of the eruption, more than five thousand people died. In addition, a huge number of buildings were destroyed. According to the world press, their total area was over 180,000 square kilometers. It should be noted that at that time a well-known lava dome, called Santiago, arose.
During the twentieth century, in total, three large eruptions were recorded. And nowadays it is considered one of the most potentially dangerous on the planet, because the strongest crash from the crater, accompanied by the release of tons of ash and volcanic rocks can begin at any time.