The production process is organized in accordance with various criteria and approaches. To optimize their production cycles, increase financial results, enterprises are very thoughtful about the ways of making their products. There are several generally accepted ways of output.
особая форма организации производственного цикла, основанная на определенных технологических, экономических особенностях, специализации, а также номенклатуре изделий предприятия. Serial production is a special form of organization of the production cycle, based on certain technological, economic features, specialization, as well as the range of products of the enterprise.
Factors of production
The type of production is influenced by a number of its characteristics and features. These are technical, organizational and economic indicators of the enterprise. They are conditioned by the composition and breadth of the nomenclature, the volume of output of finished products, as well as its stability and regularity of output.
Depending on the level of specialization and concentration, there are individual, serial and mass production. They are determined by a number of factors. First of all, the output volume is affected by the output volume and its nomenclature. When organizing the production cycle, take into account the degree of consistency of the list of products created, as well as the workload of workplaces.
This or that type of organization of the production process is applicable to the entire enterprise, its sections or even individual jobs. The attribution of the company to a certain category is rather arbitrary.
Types of production
имеют ряд характерных особенностей. Existing today the main types of production (single, serial, mass) have a number of characteristic features.
For a single production, a small volume of output of identical products is characteristic. Their repair or re-release is not provided.
During batch production, finished products are produced in batches. And they are made with a certain periodicity. There are small-scale, large-scale and medium-series type of output.
Mass production is characterized by the greatest scale. Products in this case are manufactured continuously and in large quantities. This requires a lot of time.
Main properties of serial production
является самым распространенным типом организации выпуска продукции многих отраслей. Serial type of production is the most common type of organization of output of many industries. Products in this case are characterized by constructive uniformity. They are produced in a series of small, medium or large size. Intervals are repeated at regular intervals. During the production cycle, it takes some time to manufacture the products, as well as breaks, when the equipment is at rest.
The term "series" should be understood to mean a certain number of the same type of goods, which creates an individual enterprise.
The range of goods for this type of production is quite large. This indicator looks more diverse only with a single approach to the organization of output of goods. A certain part of the products has similarities in terms of technological and structural features.
Signs and advantages
имеет ряд характерных признаков. The organization of serial production has a number of characteristic features. One of them is the repeatability and periodicity of the process of manufacturing finished products. This makes the production cycle rhythmic.
Goods are produced in large or relatively large quantities. This makes it possible to unify the products created, as well as the technological processes themselves. Products can be manufactured according to standards and regulations. This provides an opportunity to apply them in constructive series in large batches. With this approach, their cost is reduced.
In addition to improving the quality of finished products, as well as reducing its cost, organizations have the opportunity to purchase special equipment, sharpened to produce standard parts and assemblies. Productivity in this case also increases.
позволяет выделить основные черты этого способа организации выпуска товаров. Characteristics of batch production allows you to identify the main features of this method of organizing the release of goods. These include the manufacture of series with a wide range of single-type parts and assemblies. Production activity in this case is decentralized by shops, departments, etc. Their specialization is increasing.
Production is performed both on the basis of orders and in advance of unknown customers. Workers have an average level of qualification. Manual labor is characterized by small volumes.
Production cycles are short. The technological process is typed. High-tech equipment is used. Quality control is automated. Statistical methods of managing conformity to product standards are applied.
система, которая имеет ряд преимуществ. Serial production is a system that has a number of advantages. But also this approach to the organization of output has some disadvantages. First of all, it should be noted that the cycle lasts for a long time when the equipment operates unevenly.
Frequent adjustments, maintenance of machinery, machine tools requires considerable time. In this case, non-production costs increase. In the production there are large breaks. They arise as a result of preparatory work for the manufacture of goods, parts.
With an incorrect approach to the organization of the production process, the cost of products may increase, as well as the turnover. At the same time, the labor productivity index may also decrease. Therefore, the process of organizing a serial release of goods must be approached seriously, perform a number of calculations and planning.
Serial production is conditionally divided into small, medium and large-scale production. This division is conditional. This is due to the presence of certain characteristic features of the single and mass production principle in some subtypes.
, успешно сочетаются в крупносерийной подкатегории. Some features that have mass and mass production , successfully combined in a large-scale subcategory. In this case, the series have a large scale. A lot of time is spent on their manufacture. Breaks between parties are small and rare.
If the lots are small, these types of cycles determine certain features of a single method of manufacturing goods. This approach is often used to create a small batch of parts for a special order. And recently, this approach has been significantly improved. The use of computer technology can reduce the cost of working time, produce several different types of parts on the same production line.
Rhythmicity, the effectiveness of the release of lots of finished products allows you to organize calendar development. требует распределения по нескольким этапам. Serial production requires distribution over several stages.
If details, knots or blanks are planned to be produced for a whole year, they are distributed by months. After that, in the planning period, a time fund is determined, during which the equipment will work to produce the required nomenclature.
The remaining part of time is also estimated. It is used to create other products that are provided for in the production program. Such products are distributed in accordance with the calendar plans for the terms of contracts with suppliers and customers.
могут выпускать целые наборы продукции, срок изготовления которых находится в близких временных интервалах. Enterprises of batch production can produce whole sets of products, the production term of which is in close time intervals. Such types of parts, knots combine. Such sets allow relatively even loading of equipment. This reduces the number of nomenclatural combinations that are fixed in individual months.
A set of these or other details is fixed for the selected interval of the calendar period. The enterprise is interested in periodically repeating such combinations throughout the year. This allows you to establish a rhythmic release of products.
The annual program for the nomenclature and the volume of the creation of finished goods should be fully executed for a calendar period. And at creation of sets of production various combinations of manufacturing of details are counted. This makes it possible to verify the loading of production capacities.
System of operational and production planning
достаточно сложный тип организации, при котором наблюдается закрепление нескольких детале-операций за одним рабочим местом. Serial production is a rather complex type of organization, in which there is a consolidation of several details-operations in one workplace. Therefore, for operational planning , several systems are used. These include the development of future production of cyclic sets, on the stock, as well as on the complete numbers. Plans are created based on a continuous production process.
To determine future cyclic sets based on inter-shop indicators, the initial documents are the plan for manufacturing goods for the year, as well as information on the composition of the kit. They list all the details, blanks that are included in the composition. The planning department takes into account the calendar standards for each unit of output and the entire set.
This approach allows the company to properly organize serial production, improve the productivity of equipment and manpower. Correction of planned cycles in the formation of sets provides an opportunity to choose the most profitable option for creating finished goods.
Advantages of planning cyclic sets
не может эффективно осуществляться без планирования по цехам и заделам предприятия. Serial production of products can not be effectively carried out without planning on the shops and the enterprises. Analysts calculate the planned start-up schedule. This work is done for each workshop of the company. Scheduling is performed based on the previously established deadlines and the sequence of the kits to be assembled. This takes into account the normative indicator of the duration of each cycle. The whole system should function smoothly, performing the tasks of the enterprise.
Planning provides the company with a number of advantages. Manufacturing of goods is rhythmic, allowing to reduce the downtime of equipment and procleaning of blanks, components and parts.
Planning of work of sites
The most flexible in the planning process is the system for developing programs for stockpiles. First, a fundamental level is defined for calculating the reserve for parts, nodes in each shop. When organizing the production process, the task is to maintain the level of manufacturing of goods by structural units in accordance with the calculated level. The volume of planned tasks for each product is determined in days or five days relative to the final output of the product.
It is economically advantageous to reduce the operations of fitting the structures, since the stability of the dimensions of the parts makes it possible to reduce the specific weight of each manual operation of the workers. They perform several specialized operations.
Development of group processes
отличается многообразием и сложностью организации. The serial type of production differs in the variety and complexity of the organization. It includes machine-building, machine-building enterprises. For medium and small-scale production, it is advisable to apply the group planning method.
The essence of this approach involves the development of group processes and the creation of an appropriate tooling base. All the items are sorted by type. At the same time, they take into account their technological, constructive similarities, as well as the equipment of the same type.
From each group, during planning, the most complex part is identified, which determines the structural elements, similar to the rest of the products. If it does not exist, an integrated unit of production is being developed. It is designed equipment, machines. This allows you to manufacture any part of the group. This approach makes serial production cost-effective.
наиболее часто встречающаяся форма организации процесса выпуска готовой продукции. Serial production is the most common form of organization of the process of output of finished products. Knowing its features, as well as applying planning methods, the analytical service can improve the profitability of finished products, improve technological cycles.