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Rhinovirus infection: symptoms and treatment

Infectious disease, in which viruses affect primarily the nasal mucosa, is called a rhinovirus infection. Symptoms and treatment of this disease will be discussed in the article.

General information

Disease, as a rule, is accompanied by mildly expressed signs of general intoxication of the body. Rhinoviruses are part of the group of picornaviruses contained in RNA. Today, more than 100 serotypes of rhinoviruses are known to science. They do not have a common antigen, so each of the serotypes has a personal complement-binding and virus-neutralizing antigen. Viruses are quite unstable in the external environment, with dry air, most of the infection is lost after a few minutes, at a temperature of 50 ° C for 10 minutes, viruses are inactivated.

In a temperate climate, rhinovirus infection can occur throughout the year. The peak incidence falls on the autumn and spring period. 20-25% of all acute respiratory diseases cause rhinovirus.

Penetration into the body

As mentioned above, the rhinovirus infection (symptoms and treatment of the disease) will be discussed below, mainly in the damp and cold seasons, and most often develops in small and closed collectives (families, kindergartens and other educational institutions). Rhinoviruses enter the human body through the respiratory tract. Clinical manifestations develop depending on the place of introduction of the virus. If by penetration is the nasopharynx, the patient develops ARI. In adults, the nasal mucosa becomes inflamed, in children the processes of inflammation are observed in the larynx and bronchi. If the bacterial flora joins, then pneumonia develops. The causative agent of the infection multiplies, as a rule, in the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, which leads to the appearance of a local inflammatory reaction, a sharp swelling, swelling, abundant secretion.

Rhinovirus infection: symptoms of the disease

The incubation period of the disease is 1-6 days. Signs of the disease are mild. General malaise, heaviness in the head, muscle weakness - this is how the rhinovirus infection manifests itself. Symptoms are accompanied by normal or subfebrile temperature. Simultaneously, there is a catarrhal syndrome: itching sensation in the throat, sneezing, difficulty in nasal breathing, nasal congestion.

Rhinovirus infection, primarily manifests itself as a runny nose and abundant serous secretions, which in the early days of the disease have a watery nature, later the discharge becomes mucous. Also there is a dry cough, hyperemia of the eyelids, lacrimation. The runny nose lasts 6-7 days, but can last up to 14 days. The illness is accompanied by a strong sense of heaviness in the nose, ejaculation, loss of taste, hearing, smell. Young children are more difficult to tolerate the disease, because their manifestations of the disease are more pronounced. Complications happen in very rare cases.


Rhinovirus infection can be diagnosed in several ways, depending on the manifestations of this ailment. With pronounced rhinitis, the doctor will diagnose on the basis of a survey and examination of the patient. To diagnose the disease at the initial stage (up to 5 days), the virological method is used: from the nasal cavity the flushing is taken and the pathogen is detected in the obtained biological material. Also, in order to determine the type of pathogen and the counteracting factors (antitoxins and antibodies), serological methods of investigation are used.

In addition, general analyzes (OAB and OAM) may be required for diagnosis. However, it is believed that they are not sufficiently informative and reveal only the presence of an inflammation process or indicate possible complications from the renal-pelvic system.

Rhinovirus infection: treatment of the disease

Manifestations of rhinitis are similar to those of other SARS, so therapy is based on the use of drugs with a wide spectrum of action. In all respiratory diseases (influenza, adenovirus, enterovirus or rhinovirus infection) treatment includes:

  1. Etiotropic therapy aimed at fighting the causative agent of the disease. For this purpose, usually prescribed drugs "Arbidol", "Ribavirin", "Isoprinozin". In addition, local funds are appointed: "Lokferon", "Bonafton".

  2. Reception of immunomodulators. Preference is given to give to interferons, as they suppress the multiplication of viruses and maintain the body's defenses. To such medicines include suppositories "Viferon" and drops "Grippferon".

  3. Use of immunostimulants. Most often prescribed tablets "Cycloferon", an alternative for young patients (under 4 years old) is the drug Anaferon.

  4. Symptomatic treatment. To this end, the use of antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antitussive agents is recommended . It is also advisable to wash your nose with a weak saline solution or use a drop of "Aquamaris". Help eliminate medications such as "Pinosol" and "Xylen".

If the positive dynamics is not observed during 3 days of treatment and the body temperature tends to critical figures, treatment of rhinovirus infection in adults should be supplemented by taking antibiotics. As for children, it is advisable to avoid using strong remedies, if possible. Naturally, if the condition worsens, you may need to take antibiotics, but the doctor should prescribe them only.

Alternative Medicine

With this ailment, it is not necessary to immediately resort to the use of medication. Especially it concerns situations when the rhinovirus infection during pregnancy develops. During this period, the most important thing is not to harm the baby, but it is necessary to fight the disease. In this case, the recipes of traditional medicine will come to the rescue.

Decoction of sage, chamomile, St. John's wort, calendula, eucalyptus have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effect. The same effect gives the use of garlic, onions, raspberries, blackberries. A strong antibacterial property is possessed by echinacea.

Antipyretic effect will decoction of linden, mother-and-stepmother, tea from raspberry. Get rid of chest spasm in the bronchi can be through breast collection number 1, as well as decoction of chamomile and dill. Improve decoction of sputum is promoted by broths of mother-and-stepmother, quince, licorice.

The most effective folk recipes

  1. Rub the fruits of cowberry or viburnum, mix with honey or sugar, add a small amount of warm water. Take the medicine three times a day for ½ cup.

  2. Grind the onions or garlic, put in high capacity and take deep breaths over it for 1-2 minutes.

  3. Mix fresh onion juice and honey, take a tablespoon three times a day.

  4. Combine honey (a tablespoon), melted fat (30 g), hot milk (¾ cup). It is good to stir and take at an initial stage of the disease 2-3 times a day.

  5. To a glass of milk, add a tablespoon of sage, put on fire, bring the mixture to a boil and boil for 10 minutes, then strain and bring to a boil again. Slightly cooled decoction to drink before going to bed.

Rhinovirus infection in children

From birth to 6 months, the child has passive immunity. Children older than six months are predisposed to the development of respiratory diseases. More often, rhinovirus infection occurs in infants visiting kindergartens.

In childhood, the incubation period lasts an average of 3 days. As a rule, at an early stage of the disease the child feels malaise, chills, body temperature rises to 37.5 ºС. Also, the disease manifests itself sneezing and stuffiness of the nose, a cough.

Treatment of rhinovirus infection in children has its own characteristics, since many medications are contraindicated in childhood. Therefore, when symptoms of the disease should contact a specialist. The doctor will conduct the examination and prescribe appropriate therapeutic procedures.

Rhinovirus infection in cats

Cats can also get sick with this viral disease, which manifests by nasal and ocular discharge of serous character, sneezing, oppression, loss of appetite or refusal of feed. In addition, calcitous rhinotracheitis, this is the so-called rhinovirus infection in cats (treatment will be discussed below), accompanied by the appearance of ulcers in the tongue, lips, sky, the middle slot of the nostrils. The source of the infection is sick animals or virus carriers that emit the virus for several months after the disease.

Treatment of this disease in cats suggests improving the conditions of the maintenance and providing the animal with a full-fledged diet of soft consistency. Apply semisynthetic penicillins ("Oxacillin", "Ampicillin") and conduct desensitizing therapy. Antiseptics are used to irrigate the oral cavity. If you refuse to eat twice a day, isotonic saline solution, glucose solution, vitamins A and C are intravenously injected. The dose of preparations and the timing of admission should be prescribed by a veterinarian.

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