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Mysteries of the novel MA. Bulgakova "Master and Margarita"

About the novel MA. Bulgakov "The Master and Margarita" wrote countless works: from solid monographs to school essays. The number of interpretations approaches infinity. The novel has a strange property to provoke more and more new readings. The reason is that one of the main principles of the poetics of the novel is ambiguity. In combination with incompleteness and understatement, this gives grounds for the most unexpected guesses.

Literary scholars demonstrate the deepest erudition, looking for such remote associations and rare facts that they are hardly accessible to the mass reader. However, another oddity of the novel lies in the fact that profound studies are not always able to enrich as much as possible the perception of the text, which is largely based on trust between the author and his reader. The Bulgakov style has such a huge charm and appeal that the reader begins to simply believe the author from the first lines of the narrative, and do not want to dig up to the last truth.

Yes, the author made many riddles. Why did the master receive rest, and not light? Why three heroes have the names of composers (Berlioz, Stravinsky, Rimsky)? Why does the dogmatist and fanatic Levi Matvey receive light as a reward and become the eternal companion of Yeshua? Why did the master not receive a name or a surname, and the very definition of "master" turns into a common term and is never used in the novel with a capital letter? The list of questions can be continued. Why does the master constantly repeat that he wrote a novel about Pontius Pilate and does not remember the name of Yeshua? Why is Homeless in Woland's story also struck by the figure of the Procurator? And who then is the main character of the novel? And what is his main problematic: faith and disbelief, man and power, good and evil, justice and mercy?

The genre form of the novel "The Master and Margarita" is so complex that it still does not allow to come to a single point of view. A satirical novel, philosophical, menippea - it seems that any definition applies to Bulgakov's text.

Prototypes of the novel are one of the most discussed problems of the novel. Sometimes the proposed answers (the so-called alternative versions) cause nothing but rejection and irritation. Naturally, the theologians could not but speak about the novel addressed to biblical times. Accordingly, in recent years, discussions on the image of Yeshua Ha-Nozri and its relationship to Jesus Christ have intensified. However, the version that the hero of the Bulgakov novel is not Jesus Christ at all, but some "mad philosopher, vagabond", recognized as a criminal according to Roman laws and official, like many others, shameful and painful execution on the cross, is not less than the rights to existence. Therefore, there is no basis for disputes. It's just that Levi Matvey mixed up everything and became the one who laid the first stone in the creation of the legend, hostages of which we are more than two thousand years old.

Bulgakov's novel is a work of fiction, in which, by the way, there are many writers, poets, critics, and they talk about the nature of literary creativity. Trying to solve Bulgakov's riddles, we involuntarily become like erudites like Berlioz, who warns artists against excessive fascination with the power of painting, so that the hero does not turn out, as Yeshua does with Homeless - "well, absolutely as alive."

There is such a concept in school literary criticism as a "collective image". Therefore, it is hardly possible to limit the content of Bulgakov's creatures, reducing them to a single source: the master is Bulgakov himself, or his beloved Gogol, the Ukrainian writer and philosopher Grigory Skovoroda, or Gorky. Among the prototypes, Margarita Nikolaevna is called Elena Sergeevna, Bulgakov's wife, Maria Fedorovna Andreeva, Gorky's civil wife. In the image of Woland, they find the devilish features of Lenin, and in response to the trivial questions of similarity, or rather, dissimilarity, they say that Bulgakov could not afford to point out straight lines in the 1930s. It is hardly possible to recognize the productivity of such research, which destroys the integrity of the "ordinary" reader's perception. Heroes appear before the reader in different dimensions and hypostases, sometimes completely different from each other. Koroviev - Bassoon - dark purple knight, Margarita Nikolaevna - witch - queen, poet Bezdomny - crazy - professor of history Ponyreev. In this case, in one particular case, the image generates one association, in another - something completely different.

Many of the riddles of the novel simply have no clues. We are looking for a deep meaning where it is not supposed, exact answers that do not exist, because the wrong question was originally formulated. So is not it better to leave the heroes alone and let them live their own lives like fictional characters in a literary work, and no more. But also not less.

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