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Winged expressions from "Woe from Wit". The aphoristic character of the comedy by A. S. Griboedov

"Woe from Wit" is one of the most famous and cited works of Russian literature. About him, dozens of articles and monographs were written, and a great number of productions were made.

"Immortal" aphorisms

However, the prediction of IA Goncharov, voiced already a century and a half ago, came true: "Woe from Wit", the brief content of which is known, perhaps, to any citizen of Russia, has withstood not only the test of ban, but also the test of glory. To a large extent, this contributed to the aphorism and accuracy of expressions. Winged expressions from "Woe from Wit" became an integral part of Russian culture. Actually, even before Goncharov's penetrating Pushkin noticed that "half of the verses should enter into the proverb", referring to the amazing aphoristic style of the comedy.

Indeed, the text of the play is literally "torn" into quotes. Many Russians today use Griboyedov's aphorisms, even without realizing it. It seems that there always were in the Russian language winged expressions from "Woe from Wit" such as "happy hours are not watching" or "the hero is not my novel". This list can go on and on. In addition, the very expression "grief from the mind" is a short and expressive designation of the psychological problem of man. Spirited winged expressions in comedy are so many that an illusion of lightness is created. And it seems that Griboedov wrote "Woe from Wit" in one breath, in a fit of inspiration.

Creative Quest

And today it seems strange that Griboyedov could doubt the title, select and delete the names of the characters, and the design of the work itself was markedly different from the usual version.

At the same time, everything was just like that. The theme of the "evil mind" was one of the favorites in the drama of the turn of the XVIII-XIX centuries. First of all, it was typical for the French satirical comedy. It was in the French comedy Griboyedov learned short and aphoristic. But here is the nuance: the object of ridicule in these comedies was not society, but just a denunciator who took upon himself the dubious mission of a judge and a prophet. Griboyedov also gave a tribute to this tradition. In the comedy "Student" the hero also denounces the society, and his monologues are strikingly reminiscent of Chatsky's wrathful speeches, but the accents are completely different. And it's not just that the winged expressions from "Woe from Wit" are more accurate and successful. It's all about the position of the author. If in the "Student" the author's sympathy is clearly not on the side of the hero, then in the comedy "Woe from Wit" Griboyedov treats the hero much more difficult. This fact was often not taken into account. Soviet literary criticism often allowed a reverse skew, underestimating the name of the hero Chatsky. "Woe from Wit" was interpreted in such a way that Chatsky was the mouthpiece of the author's ideas. But this is completely wrong. The author of the comedy "Woe from Wit", whose life credo can be formulated as "intelligent service to the Fatherland", wise with life and diplomatic experience, was well aware of not only sympathy for the sincere impulse of Chatsky, but also the potential dangers associated with the pathos of total denial of everything and everyone. The author, undoubtedly, is impressed by the position "to serve would be glad, to be served sickly", which became winged (heard by him, incidentally, from the composer Alexander Alyabyev), but not all in Chatsky close Griboyedov.

Chatsky and his aphorisms

First of all, the hero lacks intelligence, in a sense - adulthood. It is not by chance that in draft versions Chatsky was listed as "Chad". And the point here, of course, is not only in the allusion to P.Ya. Chaadaev. Griboyedov was also attracted by associations with the root "children" - here and "child", that is, a child, and one who is blinded to the "child" is not able to think soberly. Later A.S. Griboyedov softened the "transparency" of the hero's surname, but rightly believed that he had ears to hear.

Aphoric character names

Such hints, of course, are not accidental, if we bear in mind that the comedy is written "at the junction" of several trends, in particular, classicism and enlightenment realism. In the tradition of these trends, especially classicism, the names of the heroes were "suggestive" in nature, they contained a characteristic.

"Woe from Wit" follows this tradition. A brief description of the characters shows that the names of almost all the characters correspond in one way or another to the semantics of the conversation: Famusov (the one they are talking about), Skalozub (clenches his teeth, but says nothing), Molchalin (the one who is silent), Repetilov (One who is only able to repeat), etc. The result is a picture of a deaf-mute society that is not able to hear and has nothing to say, a society where "sin does not matter, rumor is bad." As a result, the winged expressions from "Woe from Wit" are supplemented by one more: "There is something to come in despair!"

Winged expressions of heroes

In this context, the name of the protagonist of the comedy, Chatsky, is not at all random. "Woe from Wit" begins with the fact that the hero rushes with angry accusations against almost everyone, but the outcome of the struggle is predetermined. The hero is too naive and quick-tempered to pose any danger to the world of the Famusovs.

And the famous, Chatsky's well- spoken words , addressed both to himself and to Sophia ("Blessed is he who believes - it is warm to him in the world") echoes in a story in a bitter echo. Chatsky disappointed, humiliated, betrayed. He did not prove anything to anyone and did not convince anyone. The only thing that worries Famusov is "Ah! Oh my God! What will the Princess Marya Aleksevna say? "

The aphorism of the name

It is interesting that in the original version the comedy had a slightly different name, which more clearly oriented the reader to the author's installations: "Woe to the Mind". However Griboyedov changes the name. It would seem that the difference is small, but in fact it is huge. "Woe to the Wit" is a tragedy of an intelligent person in a society where others are not so smart. And in the Griboedov play this motif, of course, is present.

But "Woe from Wit" is a name with a broader meaning, because, perhaps, it became a winged expression. The society is arranged so unfairly and absurdly that the appearance of the "mind" is disastrous not only for the "bearer of the mind", but for all others. As a result of the appearance of Chatsky, everyone suffered: Famusov (he is worried about the scandal), Sophia (she lost her beloved and faith in love), Molchalin (he is losing prospects and career), Chatsky himself. "Woe from Wit" is built on a paradox: the mind that is to carry out creation, bears only destruction. Who is to blame for this: only the society or the "evil mind" of Chatsky - the reader and the viewer should decide for himself. And that is why the most well-known rhetorical question of Chatsky sounds forever topical: "Who are the judges?"

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