Municipal management is the administrative and economic activities of local authorities aimed at maintaining and developing the social and industrial infrastructure of a city or other settlement, as well as managing institutions that are owned by the urban / settlement community. Such activities are carried out within the municipal boundaries in accordance with the General Plan for Territory Development adopted and approved by the deputy corps.
Municipal management is not directly a form of political administration. However, according to the current Russian constitution, local authorities are included in a single system of state power. Therefore , economic, social and administrative decisions made by municipal entities are carried out within the framework of legal norms established by federal authorities.
The system of state and municipal management is different both in terms of functional and legal criteria. For government, the mission of general control over compliance with federal legislation in a particular territory is more typical. At the same time, municipal government is engaged in economic development of the settlement. In particular, we are talking about supporting and modernizing transport infrastructure, social sphere (medicine, education, local social programs), collecting and redistributing local taxes. A special place in this list is occupied by regional development programs, which are usually aimed at the technological specialization of the economy of the municipal formation.
In other words, municipal government is a whole complex of economic, social and legal impacts on the local community, aimed at increasing its economic well-being. Local administrations have the right to independently determine the goals and objectives of the development of the territory, not inconsistent with federal legislation.
In total, municipal management has such functionality as:
- Adoption of the local budget and administration of regional taxes;
- building a convenient, autonomous model of economic development in relation to the federal government, in particular, the right to create administrative and bureaucratic structures for the management of municipal property;
- involving the population in solving the most important issues, in particular, by holding local referenda.
In addition, the function of the municipality includes the management of municipal property. The most problematic issues are the support and modernization of housing and communal services, transport infrastructure and the physical condition of the housing stock. The fact is that most enterprises responsible for the development of housing and communal services are either privatized or sold to private owners. However, utilities are still in municipal ownership, and therefore there is a problem of combining the interests of the local community, the administration of the settlement and the owners of energy companies.
The same situation applies to transport infrastructure. It turns out that roads and junctions are mostly state or municipal, whereas transport is private. Accordingly, the question arises of how to manage property that belongs administratively, but not economically. And this despite the fact that regional economic programs and the administration of local taxes are the basis of municipal government.