In the work of the Russian poet and prose writer M.Yu. Lermontov's poem as a genre, as well as the theme of the Caucasus has always occupied a special place. "Mtsyri" is a work written already in adulthood and embodied in itself the best experience of a romantic author who sang many times the majestic nature of mountains and created the image of an indomitable and freedom-loving hero.
The uneasy history of the creation of the poem "Mtsyri" Lermontov always aroused interest among readers. Moreover, her plot helps to understand the ideals and moral beliefs of the author himself. To some extent, the hero's confession can be considered a way of expressing thoughts and hopes that tormented the poet in a difficult time for Russia.
How did the idea of the poem "Mtsyri" originate?
The history of the creation of the work goes back to the youthful years of Lermontov. At the age of seventeen he left a note in which he noted that he would like to dedicate one of his creations to a contemporary who was languishing in a monastery (he was associated with a poet with a prison) and dreaming of gaining freedom. Lermontov himself wrote that the most difficult for him at the time was the choice of ideals. While they were incomprehensible to the full passionate nature of the author, the work was not possible. All that could be written (these are the poems of the 30s "Confession" and "Boyarin Orsha") was not what the young man dreamed of.
History of the creation of the poem "Mtsyri" Lermontov: chronology
The hero-novice had related images in earlier works of the poet. In 1830 the poem "Confession" was written. Its basis was the monologue of a young Spaniard-hermit, who was imprisoned in a monastery. The hero, sentenced to death, does not regret his fate at all. On the contrary, he rebels against cruel laws and is ready to fight for human love. About his unfulfilled dreams and aspirations, he told the old monk - in this is already guessed the storyline of "Mtsyri".
A little later the story of the creation of the story "Mtsyri" gets its development. In the mid-1930s, Lermontov wrote another poem - Boyar Orsha. The action takes place in the terrible years of the reign of Ivan the Terrible. The story of the life of the main hero Arseniy directly echoes the fate of the Spaniard, and some lines of their fiery speeches are almost completely repeated. In the new poem, the plot becomes more complex and includes the story of the unhappy love of a simple slave and the daughter of a noble boyar. Later the main ideas of these works (by the way, Lermontov did not publish them) will find their embodiment in the story about Mtsyri, which allows us to speak about their direct interrelation.
Thus, years passed before the youthful idea of M.Yu. Lermontov was embodied in the plot of the famous romantic poem. So the history of the creation of the work "Mtsyri" covered several years of the author's work.
Journey through the Georgian Military Road
The next link to the realization of the one conceived for the poet was the first link. In 1837 M.Yu. Lermontov, following the place of "imprisonment", passed by one of the Caucasian monasteries in Mtskheta (the so-called old capital of Georgia). Here he met with an elderly monk, whose image now links the story of the creation of "Mtsyri". Lermontov, according to the testimony of P. Viskovatov, after the conversation, he remembered his long-standing dream.
Work on the product
Returning from the Caucasus, the poet returned to his long-standing plan and organically combined it with the story he heard. The wild and beautiful nature of the Caucasus, or rather the neighborhood of the monastery of Javari, located near the confluence of two mighty rivers, the Kura and Aragva, was most suited as a background (a feature of romantic poems) for the unfolding events. Georgian folklore works (for example, the legend of the wild leopard), heard by Lermontov in previous trips to the Caucasus, were also recalled. They had a significant impact on the character of Mtsyri. The history of the creation of the poem thus became more and more attached to the well-known features of life in the Caucasus and personal impressions left from repeated visits to these places. As a result, the text of the romantic poem was soon born: on her manuscript the author's note was preserved, indicating the day of completion of the work: August 5, 1839. And the next year the work was printed in a collection with poems by the poet.
The story of the creation of the poem "Mtsyri" includes S. Aksakov's story about how in May 1840 the poet personally read the chapter "Combat with a leopard" on the namesakes of writer N.V. Gogol. The writer himself did not attend the evening, but communicated with the guests who were there. According to him, the new "brainchild" Lermontov was greeted with delight and aroused a lively response.
Other memories of getting acquainted with the poem were left by A.N. Ants. He wrote that in 1839 he visited Tsarskoe Selo, where at that moment the poet was. One evening he visited Lermontov, who was in an agitated state and read to him from beginning to end a new "magnificent" poem called "Mtsyri."
Formation of the plot foundation
The processing of the narrated narrative and its correlation with the ideological concept of the work is also the story of the creation of "Mtsyri". Lermontov did not immediately come up with such a name. In draft version the poem was called "Bury". As the work and the embodiment of the creative idea, the title of the work changed. The word "bari" in Russian means "monk". But the hero of Lermontov had not yet passed the rite of tonsure, so for its name the "mtsyri" suited more. Besides, in the Georgian language this word had one more meaning: an outsider, a lonely person, without relatives and friends. This fully characterizes the protagonist of the poem.
Call of the passionate soul
The fate of the old man from Javari, who spoke with the poet, and the young men from the poem, developed in different ways - this was a principally authorial approach. The first has reconciled to the fate and has lived in a monastery up to an old age. The second wishes to be free in every way. In his striving, he is not afraid to speak out against a stranger, but such a world of nature close to him. It is a symbol of free life for Mtsyri.
The history of the creation of the poem includes a similar transformation of the life of the young captive - the image of the elder determined the spirit of the hero born in the Caucasus.
Why Mtsyri perishes
The final poem is tragic. Mtsyri, who aspired to find unity with nature, perishes. According to the laws of romanticism, the hero finds no unity with those who live next to him for several years and who wish him good by the monks, or with the natural elements of nature. The first are alien to Mtsyri in spirit. The latter prevail over the monastic upbringing of the hero.