Lifting devices and containers

In many areas of industry, production, and also in the process of warehouse maintenance, auxiliary equipment is required to handle various loads. In the broadest sense, load gripping devices include hooks, slings, rigging devices, traverses and other mechanisms that perform fixing tasks. Some models also carry out lifting operations, which increases their functionality. Typically, the design of grippers include the presence of hoists, crane, winches and hooks, designed to perform manual lifting and transport activities. In turn, the packaging is an additional or independent device that allows you to store or transport cargo.

Scope of application

Grabs, like tare, are usually used by personnel who work with cranes. Employees of transport and industrial enterprises, including machinists, crane operators, locksmiths and operators, also ensure and maintain the operability of this equipment. But in the overwhelming majority of cargo handling devices and containers are used by slingers and other specialists who operate the crane plants via radio channels. In addition, they inspect the technical state of the devices before using them.

Load Handling Device

The design of load grippers, as a rule, includes two basic elements: connecting and directly hooking device. The first component provides an indirect or direct coupling of the crane with the gripper. This connection can be made by means of a similar mechanism on the crane or by means of a traverse through its metal structure. Element also carries the name of a cable or chain mechanism, link and staple. No less responsible part, on which the load-handling devices and containers are based, is a hook that directly contacts the serviced load. The device can be used as an independent device. Due to the possibility of detaching the structure from the lifting machine and the load itself, it is called detachable.

Classification of load grips

Presenting an extensive group of devices, load grippers differ in a variety of characteristics. So, depending on the purpose, there are universal and special models, and by the nature of the operations performed - manipulative, balancing and restraining. In addition, the devices are differentiated by design, which, in turn, determines the type of load retention. For example, eccentric, lever and wedge gripping devices provide clamping fixation, grabs allow scooping loose material, and classical modifications with traverses support the load. There are other models, but they are used less often. In particular, electromagnetic devices act due to attraction, which allows them to be used only in special conditions.

Tare in the load gripping system

Along with the fixation and lifting of goods, the enterprises of the full cycle usually provide the conditions for their storage, transportation and storage. To perform these operations and serves as a multi-turn container - in essence, a capacity that complements the load-gripping removable devices by means of special fasteners. In its manufacture, different materials are used - for example, metal or polymeric devices (in modern versions) can be used. In some embodiments, a combined metal and wood base is used. From traditional methods of storage, such devices are distinguished by the presence of hook mechanisms. With their help, and operations are carried out to seize cargo.

Types of packaging

Depending on the enterprise or organization, it is supposed to handle goods with certain characteristics. In addition, the conditions and technical possibilities of fixation, lifting and storage are different. Consequently, there are several models of packaging that can be used in various cases, as well as load-handling devices, the classification of which is much broader. It is important to note that representatives of the same type in the holding equipment often have optimally suitable types of capacities - that is, it is necessary to correlate the characteristics of the device from two categories.

For maintenance of goods of small weight and dimensions, a soft container is used. This is an inexpensive and simplest option, presented in the form of bales, nets, sacks and bags. The category of semirigid containers includes lattices, buckets and baskets, which are serviced by load-lifting removable devices with higher strength (metal). Such devices are suitable for the transportation of bulk cargo. Hard containers are used if you need to take loads and from outside forces. This group includes high-strength troughs, containers, barrels, boxes and other types of tanks, capable of securing the cargo from mechanical influences.

Check of working capacity of grippers and tare

Since lifting and holding manipulations involve a high degree of responsibility, the equipment used must comply with operational standards. There are two ways to check the devices on the basis of which a conclusion is made about their readiness for use. Firstly, it is a revision of the technical condition, which provides for inspection of the load-handling devices and containers directly by the owner. Secondly, it is a survey of mechanisms, which is carried out by an expert commission. Typically, such events take place at industrial sites, whose activities are associated with hazardous production processes. As an on-duty preventive maintenance, it is worthwhile to note a single-eyed visual inspection of equipment performed by slingers before work.

Inspection procedure

In accordance with the rules, inspection of removable lifting devices provides for the creation of optimal conditions for detecting defects and checking the technical capabilities of the structure. For example, the equipment that is in working condition is subjected to inspection and is fixed on the corresponding crane at the time of inspection. Slings can be inspected in a special place. If a large number of specimens are to be inspected, sort them by type, characteristics and load-carrying capacity. Usually the lines are checked near the place of operation with the expectation of further use.

Capacities, as a very important component of the entire system of containment and recovery, also require attention to one's own state. Tare, as well as the main load-handling devices, must have the corresponding technical documents. In order to simplify the inspection, provision should be made for the elements intended for the transportation of the container. It is checked in isolation from the place of operation, that is, inspection without the use of a special crane is possible. However, this does not mean that in each case testing of tare capabilities for the ability to work with a load-gripping device is excluded - for this, suspension tools are provided.

Possible defects

In the process of verification, it is possible to identify many flaws and damages in equipment, the presence of which does not imply its further operation. In particular, inspection of lifting devices can detect cracks in the metal structure or welding seams, corrosion traces, carcass stratification, etc. Grapples often show inadequate elastic seals, as well as lack of tightness. With regard to packaging, the locking and locking mechanisms may not function properly, with the risk of any opening of the container during lifting or unloading, but signs of corrosion or abrasion with pronounced deformation are more common.

Repair activities

After fixing deviations from the norm of the technical condition of the load-handling devices, it is possible to conduct repair repairs. But this is not allowed in all cases, therefore defective removable load-handling devices and containers are often disposed of. The works that are usually produced in the recovery format include welding of the critical components (grippers, levers, loops, etc.), editing of individual parts, fixing the endings on ropes, replacing fixing elements, and other measures. After this, tests are carried out and an assessment is made of the suitability of the equipment for further work.

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