Introductory words and treatment are marked by punctuation. Every schoolboy knows this. But if punctuation errors are rarely found in the writing of sentences in which there is an appeal , then with introductory words the matter is more complicated. In order to understand this issue, you should remember the rules.
Everyone, regardless of the sphere in which he works, must know the basic rules of spelling and punctuation. A number of servers have been created, which are supposed to raise the literacy of the text. But it's no secret that no machine or robot can yet perform what a person can do. The absence of a comma or a colon in the text is not a gross mistake, but it is still worth repeating the rules that are included in the Russian language course.
Introductory words and treatment are parts of speech. They are not associated with the subject and the predicate syntactically. They have no influence on the other members of the proposal. Introductory words and treatment are indicated by commas. But not in all cases. Appeal may be a separate sentence, and then after it an exclamation mark is put:
- Sergei Ilyich! Are you afraid of him?
- Olga Petrovna! Do not forget to show up tomorrow, at the appointed time!
Introductory words and treatment are separated by commas when they are in the middle of the sentence. If a phrase begins with them, then, respectively, the same punctuation mark is placed.
As already mentioned, special difficulties arise when writing sentences with introductory words and phrases. In order to understand, several examples should be considered.
Types of introductory words
These parts of speech perform the following functions:
- Expression of various emotions (unfortunately, fortunately, there is nothing to hide );
- The expression of the estimation of reliability ( undoubtedly, of course, certainly, indeed, indisputably, it stands to reason );
- Indication of the sequence, the idea of presentation (on the contrary, therefore, therefore, by the way, by the way, I emphasize, in this way, beyond that );
- An indication of receptions for the formulation of thoughts ( in other words, in a word, simply to say );
- An indication of the source of the message ( according to the words, they say, they say, they transmit it ).
- Here, to Misha's chagrin, on the new desk was a diary, which he so carefully hid from his mother.
- The guest, to Gregory's amazement, immediately took off his coat and sat down at the table.
- After this incident, in fact, there was no need to be interested in his attitude to the neighbor.
- He, therefore, offers to give up your game, therefore, to lose the rating that you earned so long?
- The student, to his misfortune, left a cheat sheet on the teacher's desk.
- Katerina left, or rather ran away, leaving a brief note after her.
Introductory words and treatment perform different functions. Both in the first and in the second case we are talking about a grammatically distinct component. But if the introductory words give only a semantic or emotional color, then the appeal indicates the person to whom the speech relates.
An introductory word can be a partial construction. And then it is allocated with both a comma and a dash. Example:
The great teacher repeatedly stated that education is based, on the one hand, on unlimited confidence in the child, on the other - on high requirements .
The message is separated by a comma or an exclamation mark. Dash neither before nor after it can not stand.
Position in the proposal
Appeal, introductory words and sentences, which are additional constructions, are independent. They have no connection with the members of the proposal and are not. Therefore, the same constructions can be used in different capacities. Below are suggestions. In these examples there are introductory words and constructions of the appeal that are not members of the sentence:
- Are you sure you came from another city?
- This organization may no longer exist.
- Gentlemen, listen to the information on the new rules and take note.
In the following examples - the same words and phrases, but already as members of the sentence:
- You have completed the task correctly;
- The company can be reorganized;
- Gentlemen listened, but did not understand what innovations are.
Introductory words that are difficult to recognize
It should be said that there are cases when the meaning of the above can be understood in two ways. And then only punctuation marks are able to clarify the semantic nuance. There are words that can act as an introductory word, and as an adverb. Examples:
- First of all, it is necessary to write about this ("first of all" can be replaced by the word "first").
- And, above all, do not write about it.
- It is certainly right ("unconditionally" - a circumstance indicating the degree of correctness).
- She is certainly right.
Circumstance or introductory word?
What are the most common punctuation mistakes? Missing commas and extra punctuation after and before the introductory word. Similar errors arise because such a sentence member, as a circumstance, is sometimes difficult to distinguish. Often it is taken for the introduction. Let's consider similar cases on examples:
- The philosophical reasoning of his father naturally led his son to the right decision.
- His reasoning naturally led us to the right decision.
- Thus , he fulfilled the task in a few days (so).
- So he did the whole job (in this way).
- And then he became a real star of show business (after some event).
- And, then , he is in his own eyes a real celebrity (you can replace the introductory phrase "in addition").
- Cleverly he turned the matter, however !
- He was in danger, but cleverly wriggled out at the last moment.
- Is it wonderful that we came here?
- As for the guests, it could really seem that they are not here for the first time (the word "truth" is a particle and can be replaced by "really").
- In the end, he decided on the choice.
- The beginning actress, after all , can not play this role.
Introductory words and addresses are lexical units that are necessary to clarify the meaning of the narrative, but without which the sentence may well exist. In most cases, they are separated by commas. A sentence can include not only an introductory word or a reference, but also an entire construction that is not syntactically related to the subject or predicate.
- On this day, she went to the bridge, where, she was told, Napoleon himself was.
- Natalia Petrovna, she went on an excursion to the bridge where Napoleon was.
Introductory sentences are allocated sometimes dashes. Appeals - never. Inline sentences can be allocated not only by dashes and commas, but also by parentheses.
- Ivan Petrovich (as it turned out, that was the name of this strange man) suddenly got zabobralsya and, silently smiling, pulled a hat on his head.
- The driver braked sharply, seeing on the way part of the armature (the track of the destroyed bridge), and turned with unexpected ease.
Types of treatment
In the role of this component of the sentence is a noun and always only in the nominative case. The following types of treatment can be distinguished:
- Expressed by their own name;
- After particle "o";
- Pronounced pronouns.
The particle "o" is not separated from the circulation by a comma or other punctuation mark.
Oh, my dear, loyal friend!
However, this same particle can act as an interjection. And in this case there is a comma after it. Introductory words, conversions and interjections are components that have different purposes, but also many similar features. They always stand out with punctuation marks and, as a rule, with commas.
Such parts of speech are immutable words. They are separated from the members of the sentence by commas only if they are deprived of exclamation.
Oh, send urgently for the doctor!
If these parts of speech are pronounced with an exclamation intonation, then a corresponding sign is placed after them.
Alas! Now there is no longer a man you could not forget for so long.
Thus, introductory words and addresses have a lot in common. The rule of selecting these components with punctuation marks is necessary. After all, breaking it creates a negative impression about the author of the text. Appeals and introductory words, examples of which are given in the article, is the theme of one of the important sections of punctuation. They are often found in fiction. But in order to use these components correctly, it is not enough to read the works of Russian classics. It is necessary to repeat the rules from time to time.