Installation: installation methods. Ways of installation of structures

Installation is a comprehensive work on the installation, assembly of buildings and structures, engineering networks or their individual components. It is from him on 50% depends the reliability and durability of the created structures. Therefore, when performing the work, specialists realize that it is necessary to perform a quality installation. The installation methods, as a rule, differ depending on the objects that are to be assembled at the moment. Strictly speaking, in each area in which the installation works are carried out , there are several types of assembly. For example, the methods of mounting building structures, depending on the purpose, are of four types and are subject to certain principles.

Building construction. Mounting methods

For building structures, an important role in the durability is played by properly executed installation. Methods of installation in this case are divided into several - all depends on the type and purpose of the object. All of them require different techniques for performing work and various specialists. Ways of installation of building structures are:

1) Element-wise. Only one component of the object is lifted and installed in one stroke of the lifting mechanism. Such installation of walls is used most often in civil construction.

2) Large-block. A single lift mechanism lifts several wall elements and carries out further installation. Ways to mount large blocks are most often used in the construction of buildings and structures for industrial purposes.

3) Separate. Installation is carried out on the principle of the same type of construction - first one type, then another, etc.

4) Integrated. The cells in this case constitute the basic unit for the installation. Mounting methods by this principle imply that at first one cell is fully installed, then the next one.

5) Longitudinal and transverse. Works are carried out in the direction along the structure or across, depending on the design and functional purpose of the object.

The erection of walls in the construction of buildings and structures

The most widely and often performed installation of walls during the construction of construction sites by means of building. The upper structures are installed on the already fixed lower ones. All elements are sequentially built up over the entire area of the building. The methods of installation are separate or mixed.

The method of growing is to install the walls from top to bottom. To the uppermost floor or element of the structure, the lower ones are fixed in succession. First, all the floors of the building are arranged, and then the walls are made.

The methods of sliding, turning and vertical lifting are based on the primary assembly of a large unit on the ground and then its further movement to a permanent location.

Network engineering. Cabling

The ways of installing the cable during its installation are selected depending on many factors. These are such as location, power, number of wires, environmental pollution, groundwater, power sources, sources of consumption.

If we talk about a cable that will be laid outside the building or under buildings or constructions for various purposes, the ways of laying can be the following: trench, channel, tunnel, block gallery and trestle. In practice, the cable installation methods are mixed.

If the wiring is made in an industrial or residential structure, then the method also depends on the material from which the walls, ceilings and floors are made. The main methods are laying the cable in strobes, in corrugated hoses or behind the panels of partitions.

Trenchless laying of engineering networks

Most engineering communications are laid underground in various ways. However, at the preparatory stage, digging of trenches is almost always performed. This is a laborious and slow process. Thanks to new developments in science and technology, a new trenchless installation has appeared. The installation methods using this method allow the use of a minimum number of workers and shorten the time for the construction of utility networks. This is the so-called horizontal drilling method. To perform such work requires a special drilling rig and an operator that tracks and corrects the direction of its work.

Installation of metal structures

Very often in the construction works, such as the erection of buildings or the laying of utilities, metal structures are used. In most cases, they are guiding for further work on assembling the elements of the object. Therefore, the methods of assembling metal structures should be chosen taking into account the features and purpose of the assembled product. The following options are available:

1) welded;

2) anchoring;

3) concreting;

4) bolted;

5) combined.

Which of them will be applied to a particular facility is being developed at the design stage.

Concept of installation technology

None of the constructed object can be qualitatively performed without design and compliance. The installation technology and its compliance contribute not only to long-term operation afterwards, but also guarantee the absence of works for the correction of the marriage. The technology looks like this:

  • Create a project.
  • Preparation for installation. Includes the verification of compliance with the project, the quality of the product, labeling.
  • Enlargement of nodes. This type of work is carried out, if any, provided by the project. The product is partially assembled to perform a further step.
  • Arrangement of scaffolding and scaffolding for the work of the installation team.
  • Strapping and feeding the structure to the work site.
  • Temporary installation, verification of coincidence with project conditions, stalling of structures.
  • Bringing the structure to the location of the project.
  • Final fixing of the object in the intended place.

Instructions for installation work

Whatever product or design requires installation work, there is an installation manual. For each object, their own positions and methods are developed that combine the provisions of the GOST and modern development of equipment and tools for performing the work. The instructions contain:

  • Introduction. General description of the object to be erected.
  • General instructions for installation. The general methodology of work execution is described, without taking into account the features of the object.
  • How to do the preparatory work.
  • Instructions for installation and docking. Instructions on the features of work execution and connection with other elements.
  • Adjustment and final docking.
  • Adjustment and verification.
  • Delivery of the assembled object or product.

Safety during assembly work

In the performance of any related to installation work, safety must be observed without fail. The admission of persons under 18 years of age to their performance is prohibited. Among workers, safety instruction should be given . Proper storage of materials and components, fences and pointers in hazardous areas should be ensured at the site. All workers who perform installation at a height should be provided with helmets and safety belts.

Before lifting the object to the installation site, the reliability of all fasteners is checked. It is forbidden to move an object over the workers that are currently performing the installation. The design to the installation site can be supplied only from the outside of the building. After the delivery of the structure, it is first temporarily fixed, and then released from the lifting mechanisms.

When erecting and installing structures for various purposes, it is necessary to observe the mounting technology. With the correct method (at the project stage) and compliance with the installation rules, the object will have high performance characteristics.

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