Each of us is unique. We all see the same pictures, but we perceive them in different ways. Next to us there are people who can not see what we are. It's all about a different perception of color. Color blindness (violation of color perception) - a phenomenon that at all times was of great interest. Who are the color-blind? What colors are confused? Let's figure this out.
What is color blindness?
Color blindness is a visual impairment associated with abnormal perception of the primary colors. One or more. Some people, faced with such a phenomenon as color blindness, are afraid of further deterioration of health. This is not worth worrying about. Color blinds can have sharp eyesight, and a different perception of colors almost does not affect the quality of life.
The mechanism of color perception is based on the presence of color-sensitive receptors - nerve cells. At multiple magnification they look oblong cylinders, therefore they are called cones. These receptors contain three types of photosensitive pigments:
- Chlorolab - has the maximum sensitivity to the yellow-green spectrum of colors.
- Erythrolab - susceptible to the yellow-red spectrum.
- Rhodopsin - has increased sensitivity in the blue spectrum, and is also responsible for color perception in low light (twilight vision).
If one or more pigments for some reason do not fulfill their function, the person manifests color blindness. On which of the pigments "out of order", directly depends on what colors are confused colorblind.
The causes of distorted color perception
The reasons for the violation of color perception can be different. They are divided into two groups.
Most often there are cases of so-called primary (hereditary) color blindness. When a person is born, already having a defect in the X chromosome, not allowing him to distinguish colors.
Secondary (acquired) color blindness. Can be found in a healthy person at any age. The reasons for its appearance can be:
- Disorders of the central nervous system;
- Diseases of the optic nerve or retina of the eye;
- Trauma to the eye;
- Taking certain medications.
Types of color blindness
What colors confuse color blindness, determines the presence of different types of color blindness.
Trichromasia is the first type. It is manifested in a weakened perception of all the primary colors. In fact, a person sees both red, and blue, and green, but they are perceived they are duller than in reality.
Dichromasia is the second type of disease. People who suffer from color blindness in this form do not perceive one of the primary colors at all. Depending on what colors do not distinguish colorblinds, this type of violation can be divided into subtypes: protanopia - inability to see red, deuteranopia - lack of ability to see green, and if a person does not see blue, tritanopium comes. Tritanopia is extremely rare and is also accompanied by chicken blindness - the inability to see at dusk.
Monochromasia is the third and last type of color blindness. Those who have such a violation are not at all capable of perceiving colors, that is, they see the world in black and white colors. Fortunately, there are not so many suffering monochromasia.
Restrictions in the society for color-blinds
No matter what color the ambient color of the color blinds see and what shades they confuse, they all need some specific adaptation skills in modern society.
People with impaired color perception can not get a driver's license if they live in Turkey or Romania. In Russia, you can get the right, but only category A or B. At the same time, it is not possible to work as a driver of a vehicle carrying people or valuables. When taking a job, doctors, pilots, sailors, chemists, drivers must pass the test for color perception with the help of special tables. And this is right, because their professional activities are related to the responsibility for the lives of others.
Is color blindness treated?
Color blindness can not be cured. On the part of doctors, attempts to influence the color perception of patients are still being undertaken, although they do not bring tangible results.
Since color blindness is often a congenital pathology of vision, parents need to reveal as early as possible its presence in babies and determine what color colors are confused with color-blind children. This can be done with simple experiments in a game form. If it happens that the color shows up color blindness, do not panic. It is necessary to teach the child elementary things: cross the road at a traffic light, independently combine clothes. The most important task is to help the child adequately accept himself and his personality and prevent the development of his complexes.
Regardless of what color colors are confused with colorblind, they are full-fledged members of society, with their unique worldview. Remember that color blindness can not become in the way of self-realization of a person.