The most effective way to organize the education of disabled children at home is the remote form, which provides for the use of advanced information and communication technologies.
Within the educational process, which can be implemented remotely, a special curriculum adapted to its individual health characteristics and educational needs (plans for further education and obtaining the desired profession) can be formed for each student.
What is the abbreviation of HIA?
It occurs often enough and means limited health opportunities. Accordingly, children with HIA are children who have various kinds of deviations (mental and physical) that cause violations of the natural course of their overall development, and therefore they can not always lead a full-fledged way of life.
Within the educational aspect, a narrower definition can be formulated. Children with HIA are children who have a disturbed psychophysical development (speech, sight, hearing, musculoskeletal, intelligence, etc.), and they often require special corrective education and upbringing.
Distance learning for disabled children
The right to education is a priority social and cultural right for every person, because it is perceived as a sphere of life of society, which has the most significant impact on the process of people's development.
In modern conditions, this category of citizens, like children with disabilities, faces problems (legal, financial, organizational, technical and social) regarding the possibility of its implementation. In this regard, the study of the constitutional and legal mechanism ensuring the right to education becomes particularly relevant and acute.
Teaching children with HIA through remote forms makes it possible to provide each child with high-quality education regardless of the specific place of study. Acquiring knowledge with the help of an information computer environment gives the child the opportunity to acquire the relevant professional skills that he needs in the future for work and for a decent life in general.
In practice, it has been repeatedly proven that training through distance education technologies makes it possible for children with disabilities to receive appropriate education, as well as their complete mastering of the basic general education program of secondary general education.
Advantages of distance learning
Here the network teacher and tutor (teacher-consultant) will be able to conduct lessons using a special technological map that is used as a mechanism for individualizing the learning process through a variety of individually-oriented models of the organization and curriculum, and a lesson (depending on the educational needs and capabilities of this category Students).
The paramount task of education here is the preservation of the individuality of the child, as well as the creation of suitable conditions for his self-expression. This can be achieved through differentiated training, taking into account the degree of mastering the knowledge of the schoolchild, the pace of his activity and the development of certain skills and abilities.
What conditions are required to be created in educational institutions for children with HIA?
They must guarantee such opportunities as:
1. Achievement of planned results with respect to mastering by all the students of the basic educational program of primary general education.
2. Application of both ordinary and specific scoring scales of academic achievements of children with HIA that meet their educational needs.
3. Adequacy of the assessment of the rates of variability in the life skills of each child with disabilities along with other students, as well as parents (or legal representatives) and school staff.
4. Individualization of the educational process for children with HIA.
5. Purposeful development of the ability of this category of students to interact and communicate with peers.
6. Development and identification of the abilities of children with HIA through sections, clubs, clubs and studios, as well as the organization of socially useful activities, including social practice, while using the capabilities of existing educational institutions for additional education.
7. Involvement of students with disabilities in the permitted creative and intellectual competitions, design and research activities and scientific and technical creativity.
8. Involvement of children from HIA, parents and teachers in the development of the basic educational program of primary general education, as well as in the design of the internal social environment and the formation of individual training routes.
9. Use in the educational process of advanced, scientifically validated correctional technologies that are geared to the special educational needs of students with HIA.
10. Interaction in one educational space and general education and special schools, which will make it possible to use productively the long-term pedagogical experience regarding the education of children with disabilities, as well as apply specially created resources for this purpose.
So, we need to develop an individual program for children with HIA, which must necessarily involve their parents. This is how they realize the extent of their responsibility regarding the quality of life of their child, not only in the family, but also in school.
Cerebral Palsy in Children: Causes
There are about 50 of them. However, they all go back to the unfavorable course of pregnancy and subsequent childbirth.
The most significant (causing serious negative consequences) include:
1. Acute oxygen starvation during childbirth (for example, because of a tight cord with the umbilical cord, premature exfoliation of the placenta, etc.) or after birth (premature baby: less than 37 weeks of pregnancy or less than 2 kg). Preterm birth with caesarean section is especially dangerous.
2. Presence of intrauterine infections (cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, rubella, etc.).
3. Severe degree of hemolytic disease of newborns (immunological incompatibility of blood of the mother and fetus).
4. A number of teratogenic factors affecting the central nervous system mainly in the early stages of pregnancy (for example, the use of illicit drugs, including hormonal contraceptives, radiation irradiation, etc.).
And these are only a few negative factors that can cause cerebral palsy in children and cause significant harm to the health of the child.
Characteristics of children with visual impairment
As it was already deciphered above, children with HIA are a category of persons with a certain kind of infringements. In this case, the visual function.
According to the results of the study of this category of children, the following trends in the dynamics of specific visual ailments were identified:
1. The number of children with residual vision significantly increased (up to 90%). Their them:
- Completely blind - 3-4%;
- With light sensitivity - 7%;
- With a visa more than 0.06 - 10%.
2. The percentage of complex complex visual diseases has increased. In this case, only a few cases are associated with visual impairment, which are characterized by a single lesion of its function. Numerous studies in this field have confirmed that most preschool children have 2-3 eye diseases.
3. An increase in the number of defects that accompany visual disease. As a rule, they are associated with a violation of the central nervous system.
Integration of children with disabilities in the pre-school
This is the process of educating children with HIA in a general educational institution of a general type. This issue is given very significant attention to date.
Integrated learning implies the fact that children with HIA in the DOW need to acquire the same skills, skills and knowledge and within the same timeframe as the normally developing ones.
Precisely the preschool age is considered the most favorable for the integration of disabled children into the collective of their peers with normal development.
The education of children with disabilities in school
They are accepted there after receiving the appropriate conclusion of the pedagogical and medical-psychological commission, which must necessarily indicate that this child can be trained in the general education school.
It also contains information on the psychological and pedagogical features of the development of a particular person, as well as the results of diagnosis in these areas. Then the appropriate recommendations regarding the accompanying work are grouped into the student's portfolio.
A well-known fact is that the transition from the DOW to the walls of the primary school is very critical, therefore the paramount task of the escort service is preventive work with children with HIA with regard to preventing the problems of the adaptation period.
What can handicapped children face in the transition from DOW to school?
Adaptation period problems include:
- Personal (high degree of anxiety, lack of self-confidence, low level of educational motivation, inadequate self-esteem);
- Socio-psychological (a number of problems of social disadaptation);
- Cognitive (attention, thinking, memory, perception, etc.).
Main lines of activity of the escort service
Children with HIA in the school must receive support throughout the entire school in the following areas:
- Diagnostic measures concerning emotionally-volitional, motivational and cognitive spheres of the student's personality.
- Conducting analytical work.
- Organizational arrangements (school psychology-medical and pedagogical councils, large and small pedagogical councils, training seminars, meetings with parents of students, teachers and administration representatives).
- Consultative work with students and their parents, as well as teachers.
- Preventive measures (implementation of programs aimed at addressing issues related to interpersonal interaction).
- Systematic implementation of corrective-development activities (individual and group seminars with difficultly adapted students).
Classification of the category of persons under consideration by A. R. Muller
It is based on a certain type of violation, that is, children with disabilities may be:
- Hard of hearing;
- Late maturing;
- Visually impaired;
- With violation of the functions of the musculoskeletal system;
- With the violation of the emotional-volitional sphere;
- With the violation of intelligence;
- With a delay in mental development;
- With a severe degree of speech impairment;
- With complex complex developmental deficiencies.
Six types of dysontogenesis VV Lebedinsky
As mentioned earlier, children with HIA are a category of people with certain disabilities. Thus, the first type of such dysontogenesis is mental underdevelopment. His typical model is mental retardation.
The second type is delayed development, represented by a polyform group that has various variations (infantilism, violation of school skills, underdevelopment of higher cortical functions, etc.).
To the third kind carry the damaged mental development (initially normal, and subsequently broken because of traumas or diseases of the central nervous system).
The fourth is deficit development, which represents various variations of the psychophysical, but under the condition of serious impairment or vision, or musculoskeletal system, or hearing.
The fifth species is a distorted development, characterized by a combination of the above species.
The sixth is a violation in the process of formation of personality. In this case, a typical model is a variety of forms of psychopathy.
The essence of activities to support children with disabilities in boarding homes
Correction-developing work with children with HIA is a help in their psychological and social development (formation of images of positive social behavior and familiarization with the culture of society, training in skills and skills of daily activities).
The structure of upbringing and education of children with developmental disabilities is formed in such a way that both general educational and specific corrective tasks are provided in each age period.
What should be emphasized in the activities to maintain this category of persons?
Children with disabilities are unique in their own way, so correctional help should be as individualized as possible. It requires painstaking, patient and purposeful work. Educators should clearly understand which teaching method is best applied to a particular student, how to help him cope with the difficulties encountered during training, mainly related to his illness.
Working with children from the HIA of preschool age means involving them in a specially developed educational and development environment, as well as organizing their proper qualified training, which must take into account their age and psychophysical characteristics.
So, in the end, we should once again recall the interpretation of the concept we examined. Children with disabilities are a category of people characterized by some kind of disability (mental or physical) that requires a specially organized approach to the learning process.