Pre-sowing soil cultivation can not be imagined without a harrow-an agricultural implement that is capable of performing several operations simultaneously: equalizing the soil cover, loosening the surface, which prevents drying, crusting and destruction of weeds.
Disc harrow arrangement
The design of the disc harrow generally includes three frames - one central, which is equipped with a trailing device for joining with traction equipment, and two lateral ones, equipped with working elements - disks.
Cutting elements are fixed in sections so that they can rotate in a horizontal plane. Batteries between themselves and the frame are connected by means of hinges so that it is possible to change the angle of attack-the angle between the direction of movement and the discs. Total on one harrow is set from 4 or more sections.
Principle of operation
Disc harrows are used practically in all regions of the country, since they are capable of processing soils of high humidity - about 25-40%, as well as soils with a hardness of not more than 3.5 MPa and a quantity of stubble residues of about 60%.
- Driven by a traction tractor, the disc harrow cuts into the soil cover to a depth of 4-14 centimeters.
- During the movement the discs start to rotate, the soil layers fall on the concave surface, where they crumble, and after the fall - they partially turn over.
- Simultaneously with the beginning of the process, the sharp edges of the incisors are pruned by the roots of weed plants.
During operation, it is important to ensure that all discs touch the earth's solid. Check this condition before starting the treatment, installing the equipment on a level platform. If any cutting component does not reach the surface, then its diameter is checked and if it is worn out, it is changed.
Advantages of disk harrows
Unlike gear and mesh devices, disk aggregates not only loosen the soil, but also partially turn it over. In this they are similar to disk loschilnikami. Other advantages that a disc harrow has, users call:
- The economy of fuel in the processing of areas by reducing the resistance to the ground.
- Reducing the risk of damage to elements by obstacles - drives simply move them.
- The same depth of penetration into the soil cover.
- Self-cleaning discs, which allows the use of mechanisms with any humidity of the earth.
This equipment has gained wide popularity due to reliability and high productivity. The medium-sized unit, coupled with a powerful tractor, is capable of processing up to 7 hectares of land.
The main varieties of disk harrows
Disc harrows are classified by a number of indicators. The first of these is the type of docking with the traction device (tractor). Depending on this, they are divided into trailed and hinged. The first type of agricultural implements has in its composition support wheels, on which the whole structure is held. The advantages of this solution are that it is convenient to transport.
There are also semi-mounted units that combine the properties of the two previous types - they have in their composition support wheels and have average dimensions.
Classification of disk harrows by design
Depending on the frame structure, three main types of disk implements are distinguished. The first of them is represented by an all-metal frame - all the rods, links of the system are interconnected by rigid connections.
The second view is represented by sectional devices. Here, the individual parts of the structure are connected to the central beam by hinges, which allows the implement to be folded during transportation. And it is the harrow disc trailed most often created by this technology - this allows you to reduce the area of the unit during transportation to the object.
The third type is represented by modular constructions - upon arrival to the area to be processed the construction is assembled from individual elements, similar to the constructor. This allows you to create an even larger tool on the site, but at the same time does not prevent transportation.
Often disc harrows are used as part of a whole complex of processing tools - seeders, cultivators, plows. And the most demanded additional equipment, which is most often used by a heavy disc harrow, are rollers.
- Smooth trample down the soil after seeding;
- Ringed compact the deep layers and simultaneously loosen the upper layers;
- Rollers with spikes break the largest earth clods;
- A bar or a lattice breaks clods only of the established size.
The presented equipment is usually hinged and directly, with the help of hinges, docked with the frame structure of the harrow. They can be hung on any type of device, including the BDT (heavy disc harrow). The joint use of several types of funds can reduce the costs of processing the fertile layer, reduce the time frame and achieve a better result.