Features of Lermontov's creativity are studied in high school. At first the students pass only poems of the poet, then, in the 8th grade, the novel "The Hero of Our Time", and in the 10th grade repeat the material. Of course, you can fully understand the work of this genius poet and prose writer only in a more mature age. Not everyone is able to take a deep psychological approach to his works. The work of Mikhail Lermontov is also a fruitful field for the works of literary critics. After all, it has a lot of different subtleties.
Periodization of creativity M. Yu. Lermontov
We can say that the poet's work is quite integral. It is difficult to single out any periods, changes in the worldview. However, it is customary to distinguish early and late periods in Lermontov's work. The border is a poem written by him, dedicated to the death of Pushkin, "The Death of a Poet." In general, the death of Alexander Pushkin was a turning point for Lermontov. Now he began to feel all the responsibility that is assigned to him as the successor to the country's first poet. So, everything that Mikhail Yurievich wrote before 1837 is an early lyric, and what is after is late.
Features of Lermontov's creative work of the early period
The poet began to write rather early. If Pushkin talked about hopes, Lyceum creativity was full of aspirations, then Lermontov began with disappointment. After all, the cause of the Decembrists was wasted, they were sentenced to hard labor or executed. Dissatisfaction with the reality that surrounds the poet, impregnates all his work and clearly manifested in the early poems. Of course, works of earlier years are given youthful maximalism. In early art, such a direction is realized in literature as romanticism. We see in Lermontov's works a division of reality characteristic for romantics into the world of the earth, the real, and the dream world, the ideal one that a lyrical hero would like to enter. Features of the problems of Lermontov's creativity consist in the fact that the poet has virtually no civil and political issues. He does not raise the issue of serfdom, he does not speak of the arbitrariness of power. But we can guess his discontent from poems dedicated to the Russian village or the theme of the poet and poetry. Nevertheless, the main problems of Lermontov's creative work are psychological. From the first verses, the motif of loneliness, which, over time, is amplified and transformed, clearly sounds.
The image of the demon in the early lyrics
At the beginning of the journey Lermontov relies on the work of English romantics, in particular George Byron. The English poet also manifested the image of a demon. Creativity is associated with romance of this kind not as a gift, but as a curse. The young poet Lermontov (and his lyrical hero) is sure that he, like the demon, can never find a place in this universe. After all, the demon was thrown down from heaven, but on earth people do not accept it. Now he is doomed to wander between the two worlds, sentenced to eternal solitude. The image of the demon is closely connected with such a poetic image as a storm. After all, the demon, whose element of "gathering evil", loves fatal storms and passions. Features of Lermontov's creativity are also manifested in this: usually lyrical heroes, suffering and seeking, strive for peace, quiet and peaceful life. This is not the hero of Lermontov: he wants to live to "think and suffer." A calm negation is not for him, life is only there where passions are raging. An example of such a worldview gives us the poem "Sail": "But he, the rebellious, asks for storms, as if there are rest in storms".
Late Lyrics by Lermontov
The work of Mikhail Yurievich Lermontov should be considered holistically, without omitting any of the periods. In the late lyrics there is a change of poetic perspective. If before Lermontov blamed the whole world for his troubles, suffered from misunderstanding and loneliness, could not tolerate anything he did not like, but now he is more sedate. And his poems are filled with sadness and anguish, they have become more psychological, more verified. The motive of loneliness is closely approximated to the motif of strangeness and the search for a place in life. However, these wanderings end in nothing.
Such problems have always interested the poet. But for him, philosophy and psychology have always been indivisible. Lermontov depicts his attitude to this world and to life in a peculiar way. He almost always does this using pictures of nature. As an example, you can bring the poem "When the yellowing field is worried." Very bright poetic images found a place in this lyrical work. The poet compares plants to living beings, he feels an indivisible connection with them, something he, unfortunately, does not feel in communication with people. It is in nature that Lermontov finds rest, begins to feel harmony in himself. Moreover, for him the highest truths are revealed ("And in heaven I see God").
A similar problem is one of the last poems - "I'm leaving alone on the road." Here, nature is also depicted harmoniously, these are not separate elements, but an integral universe, where "the star with the star says." But at that moment the poet does not feel at ease. He is hurt and difficult. Perhaps, for the first time for all creativity, he expresses a desire for peace. But that rest, about which Lermontov speaks, differs from habitual representation. After all, a poet wants to see forever the blooming nature, feel the movement of the wind and hear about love.
Theme of poet and poetry
Features of M. Lermontov's creative work can not be considered in isolation from a topic such as poetry. It is in the verses, which speak of creativity, the writer's gift, that the basic principles of the world outlook of the poet are realized. A vivid example is the poem "The Prophet". In it, the poet conducts a kind of dialogue with Pushkin. He begins his poem from the moment Pushkin stopped at that time: "God gave the poet the omniscience of the prophet, but if Pushkin hoped that he would" burn with the verb of the people's heart, "Lermontov, on the contrary, feels alienated: he sees in people He wants just like Pushkin to reach people, but he will not be able to do it, because people (an uncomprehending crowd) accuse him of self-confidence and pride.Position of the poet and the crowd is one of the main features of Lermontov's poetry.
Analysis of the poem "Mtsyri"
In this poem reflected, first of all, the romantic principles of poetry. But there are also peculiar features of Lermontov's work in it . Briefly the story is as follows: a young man who was brought up in a monastery, wanted to be released, but the day at large turned for him to ruin. Mtsyri - an uninitiated monk - felt imprisoned all his life. He is a typical romantic hero, for whom the world in which he lives is unbearable. Mtsyri wanted to feel life, to know all its manifestations. He admired the beauty of nature and enjoyed walking in the woods. A special impression was made on him by the voice of a young Georgian. Hearing him, Mtsyri realized that he was free. In the forest, he came across a leopard - the personification of strength and courage. In the same battle the leopard died, Mtsyri also gets a fatal wound. The poem clearly demonstrates Lermontov's love for the nature of the Caucasus. Very bright and colorful poet describes local landscapes. In the poem most fully embodied the artistic features of Lermontov's work. The image of nature in it is correlated with the pictures that the poet himself painted during his journey through the South of Russia and the Caucasus.
The novel "The Hero of Our Time"
This is a prose work, in which the features of Lermontov's creative work are also vividly presented. The novel is very polemical. Various interpretations of the nature of the main character - Pechorin. Researchers are also arguing about how he treated his hero Lermontov and whether Pechorin could be called a twin of the poet himself. Of course, like all the works of M. Lermontov, this novel has an autobiographical background. The similarity of the hero with the writer in person: he serves in the Caucasus, he is alone, he opposes himself to other people. However, in Pechorin there are too many features of demonic and especially negative, thanks to which we understand that for the author Pechorin is clearly not a hero in the full sense of the word.
In the novel, the skills of a writer-psychologist were realized. On the one hand, Pechorin makes the reader sympathetic, but on the other, we can not say that he is a good person. He deceives the girls, he despises people and even kills Grushnitsky in a duel. But he is intelligent, he is honest, principled. Lermontov uses such artistic method of psychology as a detail. The negative aspects of Pechorin's character are manifested in the smallest details: in the movements that speak of his secrecy, in his behavior with Maxim Maksimych, which speaks of his coldness and indifference to people, even in his tears that do not result from grief, but from the wounded Pride. In addition, in the novel we can find examples of psychological parallelism.
The novel with complete certainty can be called philosophical. In it the author discusses both friendship, and about love, and about destiny. All action is designed on the central character - Pechorin, and all the story lines are reduced to it. However, the novel did not turn out to be boring: Pechorin's personality is so multifaceted and complex.
So, the main themes in the work of Lermontov.
- The theme of nature. It is usually associated with philosophical questions.
- The theme of loneliness. In some poems it is complicated by the motive of strangeness.
- The theme of the poet and poetry. What is a poetic gift, for which the necessary poetry, what is its significance in the modern world.
- Theme of love. She at Lermontov also is painted in gloomy tone, the love lyricism joins in thematic group of verses about loneliness.
The work of Mikhail Yurievich Lermontov is permeated through with deep feelings. Perhaps his lyrics are so attractive precisely because he put his soul into it, because his lyrical hero is practically inseparable from the author. Certainly, Lermontov's talent manifests itself not only at the level of content, but also at the level of form. Many poems of the poet (especially in later works) are absolutely small in volume, but very deep and capacious.