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Duel of Lermontov. Who killed Lermontov in a duel

In the summer of 1841, at the foot of Mashuk Mountain, a tragedy occurred, which then will stir up the whole of Russia. This is the place of Lermontov's duel. He was only twenty-six and a half years old. Life was just beginning. There is so much beauty ahead.

Already after the first verses contemporaries called him the second Alexander Sergeevich. And how similar were the fates and duels of Pushkin and Lermontov! Both had a tragic end not only for their contemporaries, but for all subsequent generations. How many plans of Mikhail Yurievich were never to be realized because of that mortal shot ... Until now, the real reasons for this tragedy have not been named. And all the participants of that duel took with them the mystery of the duel of Lermontov to the grave.

A lot of questions about a strange duel

This is the most mysterious duel. In history, it often happens that subsequent generations do not know the whole truth. There are many different versions, but the fact that this murder is obvious. Why did the investigators hide the special conditions of the Lermontov duel, in which the opponents left each other no chance to survive?

Could the duel be a cover for a planned murder? Who could prevent the personality of Mikhail Yurievich? Or, as contemporaries wrote, the true reason for the duel of Lermontov was too intimate to betray her publicity?

On the way to the place of service or water in Pyatigorsk

After the fatal shot, the body of Mikhail Lermontov for several hours is in place of a duel in the pouring rain. Only closer to midnight the servants will load him into a cart and bring him home. There they immediately burn the bloodied uniform, as if trying to hide evidence. Beginning from birth until death, around this outstanding personality, there are solid mystical riddles.

On the water in Pyatigorsk, Mikhail Yurievich arrives in May 1841, on his way to his place of service in the Tengin infantry regiment. He wants to visit his old friend Nikolay Martynov. Together with his relative, Captain Stolypin, they rent a small house.

The most hospitable host and his three beautiful daughters

It all started very romantic. Friends enjoyed a pleasant holiday and simple provincial entertainment. No one could have foreseen that in two months the poet would be killed. All versions of the duel of Lermontov and Martynov are built around the events that took place in the house where Lieutenant-General Verzilin's family lived.

The owner of the house is famous for the whole Pyatigorsk with a rare hospitality and three unmarried daughters-beauties. Therefore, young people are here often, provincial parties are fun and enjoyable.

The reason for the duel is Lermontov. Briefly about the events the day before

On July thirteenth, 1841, another youth party did not heralds misfortunes. The young ladies ask for music and dance. Prince Trubetskoi sits down at the piano and plays a merry tune. Nearby stands Martynov, as usual, in a Circassian coat and with a large dagger behind his belt. On the sofa, Mikhail Yurievich Lermontov and Lev Pushkin's brother Lev Sergeyevich are talking on the sofa .

For loud music, no one hears what they are talking about. But suddenly the music abruptly breaks off and in silence Lermontov's fatal reply suddenly sounds loudly: "Highlander with a large dagger". Martynov turned pale and said: "I asked you not to use your jokes in my address with the ladies."

People of the same circle and descendants of nobles

From this moment, the versions of the reasons for the duel begin to diverge. More often than not, there is an opinion that the whole thing is in Martynov's beyond-limits resentment and envy. But after all, he is an old neighbor and a friend of Mikhail Yurievich. They were people of one circle, descendants of ancient noble families. Both received an excellent education.

And when Lermontov came to the waters, he was obviously glad to meet a friend of his youth. Therefore, Mikhail did not have any malicious attitude towards Martynov - it can be seen. But why does the poet choose it for his evil jokes? On the part of their relationship in Pyatigorsk seem an irreconcilable hostility.

The first meeting of the future killer and victim

Judging by many evidences, Martynov was a stupid man and this insanely irritated Mikhail Yurievich. And the fact that he walked in Caucasian clothes and with a huge dagger was a profanity. And, of course, it caused laughter. And Lermontov was sharp on his tongue, and if he thought something ridiculous or vulgar, he always paid attention to it.

But in fact, young people are old comrades. And it is quite possible that the poet was reading his first poetry to the future murderer still in the Moscow region of Serednikovo, the estate of his uncle, where young people met ten years before the duel. Lermontov liked to come to this house in summer to rest.

And the Martynovs' estate was a few kilometers away, and he was a frequent visitor in the house of Michael together with his sisters. Moreover, they were connected by very warm relations between families. What caused this hostile attitude to the poet? The reason for the duel of Lermontov and Martynov is still mysterious.

Later, the paths of Lermontov and Martynov cross in the Junker school. According to the fashion of the time poems were written both, but pretty soon it became clear where the real poetry, and where simple youthful fun. Mikhail Yurievich felt his genius early. But Martynov saw this more and more. Perhaps, if Nikolai did not understand this, then there would not be a duel ...

The conclusion of the doctor about the reasons of death

Then the autopsy was not performed. There was only a superficial examination of the body. And here's what is written in the conclusion of the local doctor: "The pistol bullet, hitting the right side, broke through the right and left lungs and when the output hit the soft parts of the left shoulder."

It turns out that the bullet went from bottom to top at an angle of about thirty-five degrees. But how is this possible if the opponents face each other. So there is another version that a deadly shot could not be made from a Martynov pistol. Then who killed Lermontov in a duel? Who was interested in the poet's death? Whose order was voluntarily or involuntarily performed by Nicholas?

Jealousy and hatred of the Tsar

At the court of the freedom-loving poet they endure with difficulty. Especially after the poem "On the death of Pushkin." He, of course, is not printed, but he is on the lists and is known to the entire higher society. And Nicholas I had a personal pretext for dislike. This was due to jealousy of his wife, who was madly in love with Mikhail Yurievich. And it was for that. The easy syllable of his poems and the sad look were simply mesmerizing.

But could the emperor's jealousy be the cause of the death of the wayward poet? Why not? In this case, Nikolai Martynov - the one who killed Lermontov in a duel, carried out an order for political murder. Then it is easy to explain why all participants in the duel received a completely symbolic punishment.

Presence of a third person in a duel

In general, Martynov was a bad shooter, and he himself admitted more than once. But his first shot resulted in a fatal wound to the enemy. Perhaps, it was not he who fired at all, but someone else from the secret shelter? There was a theory that it was a government conspiracy, planned and disguised as a dueling murder. I shot Mikhail Yuryevich from the gun with a hired Cossack killer.

Why the gun? Because the wound was very terrible. She was not like the ones that usually got in fights. So, under what circumstances can you get a wound at such an unusual angle of thirty-five degrees? During the shot, the poet raised his hand and shot up, and the return from the weapon could deflect him back. At this point, he gets a mortal wound. This refutes the version that another person was sent to the place of Lermontov's duel.

That's what Martynov was waiting for. Shot in the air when the body is not protected, otherwise it could get into the hand or into the gun. Obviously, he wanted to kill. And the very next day all Pyatigorsk said that Nikolai was aiming at the unarmed. Even yesterday he was considered a victim of a daring joker, and in the morning he was already a murderer.

Testimony of witnesses of the duel

In fact, if Mikhail Yuryevich fired into the air, it did not change the course of the match. The spot on all participants was what happened next. In their testimony, the seconds deliberately increased the distance between the adversaries to fifteen steps. In addition, they concealed from the investigation the fact that even before the start of the duel of Lermontov, his intention not to shoot at the enemy was obvious. He himself spoke about this.

And, as promised, he shot first in the air. So he stood with his hand up, when a bullet overtook him. And most importantly, they did not say that Martynov pressed the trigger after counting three. Which meant the end of the duel. They concealed and special conditions, which for a trifling quarrel were very cruel. Shoot from three attempts, and in case of an opponent's miss, you can call to the barrier again. All this will become known much later. As well as the fact that the seconds were not two, but four.

The reasons for this deadly duel are very similar to the way the first duel of Lermontov took place. The summary of the quarrel between Mikhail Yurievich and Ernest Barant, who became the opponent of the poet, is very similar to the dialogue with Martynov in Pyatigorsk. Ernest showed Lermontov that he heard rumors about the poet's unpleasant statements on his account and, despite Mikhail Yurevich's denial of this fact, on February 16, 1840, the duel still took place and, fortunately, ended bloodlessly.

It does not matter for whom the duels of Pushkin and Lermontov were profitable, and what are the reasons for these duels. The main thing is their consequences. Tragic losses for the Russian culture of brilliant poets, talented personalities who could still write admirable works for a long time and please their readers with their creations.

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