The formation of connected human speech has been going on for thousands of years. In later stages, written form of speech developed. In modern language, there are three main types of texts: narrative, description, reasoning. Texts differ in their functionality, carry a different semantic load, have a certain structure.
Types of texts, their use
Any text is pronounced or recorded for some purpose. On this depends largely on its content. For the formulation of speech there is a certain set of tools, their use depends on the type of text.
This type of text is created to indicate that the subject belongs to a particular group. For this, as a rule, its characteristic features, functionality, scope of use are described.
A full description of the subject is impossible without detailed elaboration. The most important features are described in detail in view of the meaning that needs to be conveyed through the text. To the description without difficulty you can put the questions "what?", "What?". This type of text is easy to illustrate. In this case, one picture is enough, which will show both the general signs of an object or phenomenon, and all its important details. The action takes place in a certain place in a specific time interval. From the expressive means of the language we use the method of comparison, opposition, analogy. Simple and complex sentences are the constructions included in the text-description.
Narration. Goals for creating text
The task of this text is to describe the event in which the relationship of individual facts is viewed. The reader should understand the course of development of one or several related stories.
Characteristic features of the text
If the reader, after reading the content of the text, can answer to himself some questions: "what happened", "what was from the very beginning," "how the story ended," "what was the climax in the development of events." This indicates that he is dealing with such a type of speech as narration.
Verbs that can be included in narrative, interrogative, exclamatory sentences play a huge role here.
The narrative narrative emphasizes the change of events and their logical sequence. In texts of this type, a chronology is traced. Simple and complex sentences form the basis of texts belonging to this type.
Narration: an example
As an example, you can take a text from the collection of exercises designed to work with children of primary school age. The story is called "On the Seashore."
Russian folk tales can also act as an example of narrative texts. In their structure, the outline, plot development, culmination and decoupling of action are clearly visible. The narrative is found in the artistic and scientific literature, as well as in all genres of colloquial style.
Definition of speech types. Work methods
After the children have read the text-narrative, the example of which is given above, it can be suggested to define its theme and the main idea. Collectively discussing the proposed task, it is appropriate to answer the question "what did Seryozha and Natasha do?" Students enumerate all the acts committed by the heroes of the story. It will be useful to evaluate the actions of the characters. In addition, you need to ask the children to talk about those events that preceded the actions of the characters. The plot is very important in the text-narrative.
This type of speech is designed not only to indicate the features of the subject, but also to explore them. In addition, it is necessary to prove and justify the existence of interrelations, which the narrative does not require at all.
The text is very important logic, so you should clearly build the course of reasoning. All that does not apply to the proof of the thesis is excluded from the article. In the construction, common simple sentences and complex ones with subordinate circumstantial, goals, causes, and consequences are most often used.
From the questions to the text-reasoning the most suitable are such as "why?", "Why?", "Why?"
Watching the types of speech
The general education program in the Russian language should give students knowledge of what a text is, its type. Narratives, reasoning, descriptions are given as examples. But the main thing that it is necessary to teach children is the ability to prove the belonging of a text to a particular type and independently compose them on a theme assigned by the teacher.
To master these skills, students must:
- Distinguish text from a set of sentences;
- Know the structure of the text, its main parts;
- To be able to put to the content of a work one of the questions by which it is easy to determine its belonging to the type of speech;
- Be able to assess the life situation, in which a certain type of speech should be used.
When working on the text, it is not difficult to see that there is such a phenomenon as the combination of its various types in one work. Fragments are included in the exposition not isolated from each other, but in close conjunction. Therefore, it is very important not only to learn to distinguish between types of speech, but also to skillfully connect them with each other.
A graduate of an elementary school, provided that the work on the development of speech was conducted systematically, without any special difficulty determines the type of text: narrative, description, reasoning. Work on the ability to compose and combine them among themselves continues at subsequent levels of learning.