Fortress wall of Smolensk: the history of the historical monument

The fortress wall of Smolensk is a stone fence with several towers, each of which has its own interesting history. Let's talk about some of them in this article.

Stone fortress in Smolensk was built in the late XVI - early XVII century. The height of the walls reached 18 meters. З8 towers consisted mainly of three tiers and reached 22-33 m in height. The wall of this fortress is considered the most powerful in the history of Russia. Even Napoleon managed to blow up only 9 towers. In peacetime, the fortress wall of Smolensk served as a source of brick, which was used to restore buildings destroyed by the war. Today, we can see 18 towers and fragments of the wall, scattered throughout the city. This big was the Smolensk fortress wall, the history of which is filled with a lot of heroic battles.

Zaaltarnaya Tower

It consists of 16 faces and is located at the end of Isakovsky Street. It is in the possession of the Smolensk diocese, so its internal part is inaccessible for inspection, as it is part of the monastic territory. Today the tower was restored and re-covered with a roof, which was lost during the Patriotic War.

Pozdnyakov's Tower

It consists of four faces and is located on Timiryazev Street. It was named after the merchant Pozdnyakov. In the people it was called "Rogovka". This name, she received because it is located in the place where the road is bifurcated. The tower was also subjected to numerous enemy attacks during wars. During the Patriotic War, it also lost its roof, but was partially restored in 2013.

The Tower of Volkov

Despite the fact that today we can see at least partially what the Smolensk fortress wall was, the history of the towers is connected with the reflection of numerous enemy attacks, in peacetime it begins to break down from old age, and there is nothing to be done about it. For example, the Volkov tower barely holds with giant metal supports, although it continues to crumble. It is located on Sobolev Street. It is believed that the tower is named after one of its defenders. Although, according to another version, its name originated from the word "swarthy", which means wet, since in antiquity the Dnipro branch ran in front of it. In another way, the tower is called "Strelka", because it opens a direct and clear view of Rachevka.

At the beginning of the 18th century there was a powder cellar in the tower. Even then she was in a deplorable state. Therefore, it, as well as the adjacent fortress wall of Smolensk, were dismantled. Again built the tower in 1877 and contained in it the archives of the district court. In Soviet times, it even lived, and now it's dangerous to enter it. She also looks to collapse. The authorities of the city are trying hard to save the architectural monument.

Tower "Veselukha"

When visiting this architectural structure, which, by the way, includes a sightseeing tour of Smolensk, the tourist, it would seem, has nothing to be afraid of, because she has such a funny name. But it turns out, there is something to be afraid of. At least the legend, which says that in this tower was buried alive the daughter of one of the city merchants. This was done in order to pay off the evil spirits that prevented the tower from standing normally in its place and not cracking. But the girl, apparently, having gone mad from grief, did not cry, but laughed in her imprisonment. That's why the tower was called "Veselukha". On the basis of this material, Ettinger wrote a novel called The Tower of Veselukha. Although, if you do not believe the ancient horror stories, it turns out that she received her name for the cheerful landscape, which opens if you climb to the top. Fortress wall of Smolensk includes several towers, but this is the most popular. It was also completely restored.

The Eagle Tower

Here often come tourists to admire the stunning panoramic view that opens from its site. Throughout the city the Smolensk fortress wall is scattered. The address of this tower is Timiryazev Street. She is sometimes confused with Veselukha. But these are two completely different towers with their own stories. On this, it is believed, lived eagles, which flew from here, as soon as the war began. The tower is not round at all, but has 16 faces. In another way, she was called Gorodetska because she had an earth fortification at her foot, which in ancient times was called "town".

This tower has an unpleasant story. Money was allocated for its reconstruction. When the work began, there was a fire. Materials burned. The authorities immured the tower. In this form, it still exists. It can only be viewed from the outside.

The Koopyten Tower

This part of the Smolensk fortress wall is located on the territory of the Lopatinsky garden. Earlier it was protected by a ditch with water and an earthen rampart. This tower has three tiers and an L-shaped passage. Icons are preserved over the gates, which were traditionally installed on structures of this type. It is not difficult to guess that the name of the tower is associated with the word "hoof". Indeed, it was built on a road that drove the cattle to the pastures. The tower has been restored, but the gates are not used.

Kassandal Tower

The second name of this tower is Kozadolovsk. It is also connected with the fact that pastures were located near it. This tower has not survived to this day. If it had not been blown up by the troops of Napoleon, you would have found it in the place of the Memory of Heroes Square. Instead of it, here in 1912 a city school building was built. During the Patriotic War, it was destroyed, and then rebuilt. Now it houses a museum.

The volumes of this article do not allow us to tell about all the towers that includes the Smolensk fortress wall. The hours of operation of the towers should not be looked for. But the museums located in them work, as a rule, from 10 to 17 hours. The day off is Monday.

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