The development of speech in the preparatory group of the kindergarten is one of the most important directions in the training of preschool children. It is to this process that the teacher's team pays much attention, both during the training sessions and in daily activities throughout the entire period of the child's stay in the institution. The development of the ability to communicate, express their thoughts - this is the foundation for the further successful mastery of children's knowledge and skills. This article deals with the organization of the speech environment for future first graders within the walls of the kindergarten. Here, various methods for developing speaking and communicating skills are described. The information presented in the article will be a good hint not only for preschool teachers, but also for parents.
The main tasks of the direction of speech development in kindergarten
The section of the program of upbringing and education of preschool children "Development of speech" in the preparatory group includes the following objectives:
- Formation of a rich and active vocabulary in the child;
- Development of the environment of the preschooler of the speech environment;
- Development of a culture of communication;
- Formation of coherent speech;
- Improving the ability to correctly pronounce sounds and words.
We learn about how to achieve the development of all the above skills and abilities of a six-year-old child from further information.
Methods for the formation of the speech development of future first-graders
The task of teachers and parents of a six-year-old child is not only to teach him to speak, but also to give him a comprehensive development. The means of developing the speech of preschool children, presented below, will help to fulfill these points. They include such moments:
- Communication with peers and adults.
- Finding a child in a cultural language environment.
- Education of the mother tongue in class.
- Acquaintance with works of fiction and art in their native language.
Methods used to form speech skills in children
A child of 6-7 years of age still loves to play. Therefore, in order for the process of obtaining knowledge to pass successfully, they should be presented in an interesting form. What can attract the kid? The methodology for developing preschool speech includes such interesting methods of presenting information and achieving successful learning outcomes:
1. Visual methods :
- Observation during excursions and walks;
- The consideration of a particular object, a plot picture, or a photograph;
- Verbal description of toys and images;
- Paraphrase on the plot picture, filmstrip, on a group of subjects.
2. Verbal methods :
- Reading and retelling of works of art;
- Storytelling with support on visual material and without it;
- Memorizing poems and small fragments of prose by heart;
- Generalizing conversation on the meaning of a fairy tale, a story;
- Compilation of a story on a group of pictures.
3. Practical methods :
- Didactic games on the development of speech of preschoolers;
- Plastic sketches with commenting;
- Round-the-clock games.
About how to achieve the desired effect in the development of speech of preschool children-six-years in practice, we will discuss the next part of the article. Descriptions of the exercises and games presented below will help parents and caregivers achieve excellent results in this direction.
Work on soundproofing
Classes for developing speech with kiddies of older preschool age include exercises for differentiating certain sound groups: sonorous and deaf, hissing and whistling, hard and soft. Here are a few examples of such games.
- "Repeat". The kid is offered to repeat words similar in pronunciation to the adult: poppy-so-so, smoke-house-smoke, etc. The purpose of this task is to make the child clearly pronounce the sounds, thereby to ensure that he distinguishes and hears them, what is the difference.
- "It seems or does not seem like it." From the group of words the preschooler should single out one that sounds sharply different from all others in sounding. Examples: "mac-tank-so-ram," "lemon-bud-som-wagon," and so on.
- "Catch the sound." The purpose of the exercise is to teach the child to hear the given vowel or consonant and to allocate it from the stream. Rule of the game: clap your hands when you hear "A". Approximate sound stream: U-A-M-R-A-L-O-T-A-B-J-S-A-A-O-K, and so on.
- "Find the picture by the first sound." The child is given several cards with the image of objects. The adult calls the sound, and the kid chooses the object, in the name of which he is the first. Similarly, a task is performed to determine the last sound in the word.
The performance of such exercises teaches the child not only to hear sounds, but also to isolate them from the general flow, perform an audio analysis of the word. A successful mastery of the phonemic structure of words is the guarantee of a literate letter in the future.
The development of speech in the preparatory group of the kindergarten: the intonation side
Rhythm, melody, voice power, timbre, pace of speech - these are the elements that make communication live and bright. It is important from an early age to teach the baby to correctly use the sonic side of speech. To do this, you can use the exercises below.
- "Finish the phrase." The child is invited to pick up a rhyme for expression. Examples: "Where have you been, Tanechka?" (The answer: "I went home with my grandmother"), "Our toothy crocodile ..." (answer: "I took the hat and swallowed it"). Selection of consonant words in this exercise not only develop intonational expressiveness, but also teaches to perceive poetic speech.
- "Tell me a story". The child needs not just to convey the plot of the work in words, but also to reproduce the intonation of the voice of one or another hero.
- "Say the word slowly / quickly." This task helps to develop the pace of speech. When a child learns to pronounce words, the task becomes more complicated. He is asked to say the whole sentence at a certain pace.
- "Big and small animal." With the help of this game, the kid learns to control the power of the voice. He is invited to show how a small dog growls (or any other animal), and then a big one.
Enriching the active vocabulary
Lessons in the development of speech in the preparatory group in this direction have the goal of teaching the child to select antonyms, synonyms, to distinguish polysemantic words and to be able to use them correctly in speech. To achieve a successful result in this will help exercise and didactic games. Examples of some of them are presented in the list below.
- "Find the opposite word in meaning" (antonyms). For example: "The snow is white, but the earth ...".
- "Think of a sentence to the picture" (many-valued words). The child has objective cards with the image of onions (vegetables) and onions (weapons). He needs to make an offer with these concepts.
- "Say differently" (selection of synonyms). The adult says: "Great." Children should pick up words that are close in meaning: huge, huge, giant, etc.
These and other similar didactic exercises kindergarten teachers can include in the abstract of the speech development class in the preparatory group as a method of teaching children.
Formation of the grammatical structure of speech
The development of the speech of six-year-olds in this direction includes the work on teaching preschoolers to use the word in speech in the correct number, gender and case. Also at this age children should know indecent words (coat, piano). Classes for the development of speech in the preparatory group necessarily include exercises for teaching the competent use of "difficult" verbs: "undress-remove," "dress-wear." To achieve the correct application of these concepts in communication, it is possible only by permanently fixing the acquired knowledge in gaming and everyday life. For example, during the walks, ask the child to tell him what he is doing (putting on a hat, dressing a doll, etc.).
The development of speech in the preparatory group also includes the teaching of word formation. Kids are very fond of the games of such a plan: "Call a cub from the name of his mother" (in a hedgehog - a young man, but a horse has a foal), "Invent a word longer" (spring - spring, freckles).
Formation of the ability to build coherent utterances
Descriptions, reasoning, narration are the basis of speech. After the child began to speak, the task of parents and teachers is to teach him how to build correctly from the words of a sentence, and from sentences - a coherent text. From the earliest childhood the kid should hear around him competent speech. To do this, you need to talk a lot, read books, watch and comment on developing cartoons. In the classroom in the kindergarten and at home, the use of didactic exercises is recommended for the development of coherent speech in this direction. The educator-educator can safely introduce them into the outline of the lesson on the development of speech in the preparatory group. Let's look at some examples of such games.
- "Come up with a continuation of the story." The child is shown one plot picture. He describes what he sees, and then unfolds the plot further.
- "Put the pictures in the right order and make up the story."
- "What was before that?" The preschooler sees a picture on which the final of the story is depicted. He needs to come up with its beginning.
- "Draw a fairy tale." The child is read a small work, and then asked to illustrate what he heard. At the end of the creative process, the kid retells the tale in his picture.
Indicators of successful development of the preschooler's speech
At the end of the school year in the preparatory group the child should know and be able to:
- Build a coherent story on the proposed picture;
- Retell small art works;
- To maintain a conversation with adults and peers;
- Use in their speech the words of courtesy;
- Answer the questions with a full sentence.