Demarcation of borders is the designation or definition of a state border line on the terrain in accordance with the delimitation treaties and the descriptions and maps attached to them. Work on the establishment of the border line is carried out by a special mixed commission of both states created by governments. In some cases, these functions are carried out by a special international body, which is created as a result of peace negotiations.
The created commission primarily deals with determining the exact position of the line on the terrain and makes a description - the protocol of the demarcated border with its designation on the map. Also, she enters into this document each border pillar and crochet-scheme of each sign. Demarcation is a process that includes the introduction of certain refinements of the passage of the boundary line, indicated in the contract and depicted on the map, which is attached to it. Such explanations are mainly required near settlements, on mountain ranges and rivers. This is due to the fact that the agreement may indicate insufficiently complete and reliable information.
On the ground, the state border is marked by boundary signs. After the mixed commission signs the demarcation documents, all parties to the contract must approve them according to the legislation in force in these states. The paper enters into force after the participants exchange documents confirming its approval.
Work on the demarcation of borders
The process of demarcation is accompanied by topographic surveys or aerial photography of the terrain. Based on the received material, a large-scale map of the boundary strip is drawn up, signs are established, and their topographic coordinates are determined. All work on demarcation is recorded in special documents, to which are attached diagrams and photographs of signs. It is prohibited to move border signs, and the parties are obliged to ensure that they are in good condition. Checking the previously demarcated border, replacing and restoring the destroyed border pillars is called "redemarking."
Borders of Russia
Most of Russia's borders with countries that were formerly part of the USSR are "transparent", that is, practically unprotected and insignificantly secured customs border points. The demarcation of the borders of Ukraine and Russia, as well as of Russia and Kazakhstan, was carried out at the administrative level.
There are also geopolitical boundaries. They are determined taking into account relations between countries. In the late 30's of the last century the western border of the USSR was considered confrontational. This means that on both sides of her concentrated troops. Today, the conflict can be called the southern border of Russia.
For the economy of the country, the most important are the contact borders that connect Russia with neighboring states by transport routes. They are divided into integration and connecting. For example, the border with Belarus is an integration one. Through it contacts are strengthened, people move, cargoes are freely transported.
There are also barrier boundaries. Through them it is difficult to carry out economic ties as a result of natural obstacles (high mountains) or because of the regimes established by one of the states. From a legal point of view, there are legal, approved by the states and conditional borders that require clarification and conclusion of the relevant treaty. It is worth paying attention to the fact that many of Russia's borders still remain conditional.
Demarcation of the Ukrainian borders
To date, the Ukrainian-Russian border line is still a controversial issue, its demarcation has not been completed. Ukraine and Russia did not bring this issue to its logical conclusion. The separation of territories in the Kerch Strait still remains an unresolved problem. Nevertheless, their land borders were recognized by each other back in 2003 at the level of the presidents. In 2004, the concluded treaty was ratified by parliaments. It is worth recalling that the demarcation of Ukraine's borders in the UN is not required - the treaty must be bilateral and approved only by the participating countries.
The problem of demarcation of the Ukrainian-Russian border
The issue of registration of the state borders of the CIS countries arose in 1992, when the director of the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service made a statement that the Helsinki act on the inviolability of borders does not apply to the countries of the Commonwealth. But the corresponding agreement was signed and approved by the parliament only in 2003-2004. However, demarcation of borders is not the whole process. It also includes the stage of delimitation. In fact, demarcation is the establishment of border pillars. In the course of delimitation, the borders of neighboring states are drawn on the corresponding map.
After ratification of the treaty, the Ukrainian and Russian sides were to create a demarcation bilateral commission. A draft agreement on the demarcation of state borders was prepared, which is still safely on the tables of officials of Ukraine and Russia.
Problems of communication with Russia
Demarcation of borders is a bilateral agreement. But for many years, negotiations between countries have not been effective. At the same time, the absence of demarcation of the Ukrainian-Russian border greatly complicates the negotiations of the states with the European Union. This is explained by the fact that approximately 80% of illegal migrants fall into the EU countries just across the border of these countries. There is no mechanism to prevent this from the Ukrainian side.
Demarcation of the border is an important factor for negotiations on Ukraine's accession to NATO, as the main reasons for the denial to date have been the absence of a demarcated border with neighboring countries, the compliance of the armed forces with NATO standards and the presence of a foreign bases candidate on the territory of the state. In the case of Ukraine, there are problems on the following points: the Russian base in Sevastopol, the outdated armament of the Ukrainian army and the unfinished border demarcation. These are the reasons that complicate the negotiations of Ukraine with NATO.
The border issue of Russia and China
The issue of the demarcation of the border between China and Russia was resolved tensely. The identification of lines in the regions of the Russian Far East and Siberia was problematic. Central and regional authorities also could not find a compromise solution, the dissatisfaction of the parties was expressed through demonstrations and rallies. Protest actions were supported by some leaders of local administrations. The governor of the Primorye Territory Nazdratenko E. for several years sabotaged the demarcation in an effort to prevent the "sale of the motherland".
As a result of controversial issues, the demarcation of the border with China was carried out intermittently. One of the members of the commission, in protest against the transfer of land to China in 1996, resigned. But the leadership of Russia still managed to smooth out the negative consequences of all the above facts and normalize the situation on such a dangerous border in the past.
The demarcation of the Russian-Chinese border
November 10, 1997 during the fifth meeting in Beijing, Russian President Boris Yeltsin. And Chinese President Jiang Zemin made a statement that all issues concerning the demarcation of the border between China and Russia have been resolved. For the first time in the history of relations between the two countries, the border line on its eastern part is marked on the ground according to the agreement signed on May 16, 1991. This result is very important, and it was achieved only through mutual efforts and consideration of the interests of both sides.
After a productive meeting at the highest presidential level, the sides declared their readiness to conduct demarcation works on the western stretch of the border between Russia and China within the agreed timeframe. In addition, it was noted that the negotiations between the countries will continue, so that all remaining questions about the border line along its entire length have been resolved fairly and rationally. The heads of state stressed the importance of successfully completing the demarcation of the Russian-Chinese border. This corresponds to the interests of citizens of both countries and is a common contribution to the cause of peace, peace and prosperity of the border areas of China and Russia. Also, the issue of demarcating borders between states is necessary to strengthen friendship and good-neighborliness between them and to maintain stability in the region.