The content of piglets at home is a very profitable business, but quite troublesome. First of all, it is necessary to develop a balanced diet for animals. There are several technologies for fattening pigs, which must be known to those who want to achieve good results in this matter.
What you need to know about
Fattening piglets for meat at home is done with the following recommendations:
- Stomach in pigs, unlike cattle, is single-celled. Therefore, the basis of their diet should be not rough, but concentrated food. Since there is not much protein in cereals, animals should be fed with pomace, special yeast, leguminous cultures, inverted, skimmed milk and fish meal.
- The volume of the prepared portion is determined by how much pigs can be grown at a time. The mash remains in the troughs should be thrown out, without waiting for it to sour.
- Concentrated fodders for these animals are usually given in crushed form. The whole grain of wheat, barley, oats, etc., they are very poorly digested.
How to choose a pig for fattening
When buying first of all, one should pay attention to the development, breed and health of the animal. A good piglet:
- Has a wide back, a long trunk and strong legs,
- At run it does not choke and does not wheeze,
- Does not suck, but with an appetite eats the proposed food.
How to choose a pig for fattening, thus - the question is not particularly complicated. Next, let's look at the actual methods of growing these animals in relation to the diet.
Types of feeding technologies
So, the basis of the ration of these economic animals is the grain feed and vegetables. There are only two types of fattening pigs: meat and to fatty conditions. In this article, we will take a closer look at the features of the first technology. She, in turn, is divided into two more varieties: actually meat and bacon. Both of these methods can be used to fatten all breeds we breed in our country.
Features of the composition of the diet in different periods of life of pigs
The "menu" of pigs largely depends on their age. In this respect, only two periods of cultivation are distinguished:
- Milky . Depending on the age at which the pig was bought, this period can last from three to four months. At this time the animal is fed very often (5-6 times a day) and little by little. Up to four weeks of age, the basis of the pig's ration is cow's milk. At the end of this period, the animal is transferred to the shot. Cereals are usually given in a mixed form. Also in the diet of small pigs include boiled potatoes and carrots.
- Actually fattening. This period begins after the animals have reached a weight of about 20 kg (as a rule, this is about 2.5-3 months old).
Meat fattening of pigs
This technology is used most often in our country. With its application it is possible to grow pigs with very tasty tender and juicy meat, with a layer of fat on a ridge of 2.5-4 cm, which is in high demand among the population. Begin the fattening of piglets at home by this technology when they reach a weight of 25 kg (at the age of about 3 months). Finish - to 6-8 months. By this time, the weight of pigs reaches about 90-120 kg.
Features of the method
Fattening piglets for meat at home using this technology is divided into two main periods. Before reaching a weight of 70 kg in pigs, there is an intensive growth of muscle mass. At this time, the lion's share of the ration of animals - in addition to cereals and potatoes - should be a food rich in protein. It can be, for example, peas, a green mass of legumes, a return, fish meal , etc. After reaching a weight of 70 kg in the diet of pigs, the amount of crushed cereal and juicy forage is increased. In both these periods, animals must be given 10-35 grams of salt per head per day and 5-25 g of chalk.
Bacon fattening pigs
This method is a kind of meat technology. Its difference is, first of all, that with its application it is possible to grow animals with very high quality bacon meat, which has always been demanded. Using this method, it is possible to obtain pigs of 80-105 kg in weight. Apply it mainly only to animals of special bacon precocious breeds. Like the conventional meat method, this technology is divided into two main periods. Up to 5.5 months, pigs are fed so that the increase in live weight is about 400 g per day. Next, I develop the menu in such a way that this figure increases to about 600 g.
The ration of piglets on fattening by bacon technology consists of such feeds as barley, vetch, peas and other legumes, millet, and also various kinds of animal additives. Particular attention is paid to the drafting of the menu in the second period. At this time, from the ration of pigs, such degrading properties of fodder meat as fish waste, oil cake, soybean, etc., are completely excluded.
Fattening pigs for meat at home using the technologies described above makes it possible to get a very high quality product in the end. However, their content is bypassed, in the case of developing a special diet, is quite expensive. Therefore, very often owners of household plots feed pigs according to a simplified scheme, choosing one of two options: dry or wet. In this case, you can also get enough quality meat.
When choosing a wet fattening technology, the pig's diet consists mainly of sticks. They are prepared from boiled potatoes, vegetables, food waste and grass. Also, pigs are given crushed grain. To this, mixed with pea flour, vitamin-mineral supplements, cake.
Dry method of feeding is technologically easier than wet. In fact in this case it is not necessary to cook vegetables and to carry heavy buckets with мешкиками. In addition, it is fast fattening piglets and very effective. However, dry technology, in comparison with the wet one, has some drawbacks. Pigs grown in this way, for example, often have constipation. Since they only receive food in dry form, we must ensure that the animals in the drinking bowls always have fresh water. Using this method, pigs are given mainly cereal mixtures. It is necessary to grow this technology, of course, more expensive than using a moist method.
Reduce costs when maintaining pigs, using special mixtures. Fattening piglets on bioadditives, among other things, allows improving the quality of meat. Basically, these drugs are a mixture of various vitamins, as well as macro- and microelements. Containing the same amino acids significantly increase the digestibility of feed.
Frequency of food staples in the trough
So, now you know how to grow pigs for fattening to get quality meat. Next, let's see how many times a day it is worth filling the trough of animals with food. Milk pigs, as already mentioned above, food is given 5-6 times a day. Pigs-adolescents up to 4 months old troughs are filled three times a day. Later, in the event that the amount of cereals in the diet of young animals reaches 1.5 kg per head, they switch to two-time feeding. With the predominance of the menu, the sticks save three meals a day.
Maintaining the appetite of pigs
In order for animals to eat better and, accordingly, to gain weight faster, the food should be prepared. Usually, such additional measures are taken when fattening pigs for fat. But in some situations, these techniques can be useful when growing animals for meat. Before feeding, for example, the cereals are subjected to the procedure of salivation. It consists in pre-soaking the concentrated feed with hot water (85-90 degrees) for about 4 hours. On a kilogram of cereals in this case, take about 1.5-2 liters of fluid.
In the event that the pigs do not eat up the bryozoans, the remnants can be poured with pre-cooked oat milk. Improved so the food like pigs is much more than usual.
To prepare such milk, one kilogram of oatmeal is poured with boiled cold water and mixed. The chatterbox should stand in a warm room for about three hours.
In order to determine the increase in the weight of a pig for a particular period of time, it is, of course, easiest to weigh the animal. However, it is not always possible to perform this procedure at home, unfortunately. Therefore, private traders in household plots most often determine the weight gain approximately - by measuring the girth of the chest and the length of the trunk. In both cases, use a centimeter tape. When measuring the chest girth, it is positioned along a vertical line running along the posterior corners of the scapula. Finding the length of the trunk is also not difficult. For this, the tape is stretched from the middle of the nape along the upper line of the neck, back and sacrum to the root of the tail.
Fattening pigs for meat at home using any of the technologies described above makes it possible to achieve good results of growth of live weight and excellent quality of the final product. Using these methods, it is possible to grow large pigs as soon as possible.