Caution: gerundive circulation!
What is the sacrament? It is a form of the verb (some philologists believe that an independent part of speech), which denotes a feature of the subject by its action. Examples: written, singing, drawn, painted, whipped.
If the sacrament has a word depending on it, then the design will be called participial turnover. Examples: written by a student, singing a song, drawn by an incomprehensible force, painting with a brush, whipped with a whisk.
Participatory turns are usually in the proposals serve as definitions: isolated, unimportant, circumstantial.
The participial turnover always acts as a single, integral member of the sentence, and, therefore, determines one, the main word. Depending on the place in the sentence in relation to the word being defined, it is allocated or not allocated with commas. It stands out if it is after the specified word.
- The sun, rapidly rolling over the horizon, painted the sky in a strange pink color.
- The sun rolling down the horizon painted the sky in a strange pinkish color.
The verb form (or, in the opinion of other verbiage, an independent part of speech) is called a verbal participle, denoting an additional action. They never change. Examples: painting, humming, capturing, whipping.
The gerunds, denoting the additional action of the predicate, like it, designates the action of the subject (only additional).
Example: The boy walked, bouncing and humming. See: the boy was walking, jumping and singing.
Remember: the gerund participles denote the additional action of the predicate. It can not be associated with other words in the sentence. This is a gross speech error. You can not say "driving up to the platform, my hat has flown off!" After all, it turns out that the hat drove up and flew! Unfortunately, today many journalists and translators forget about this rule. There are pearls of the type "coming out of the room, I was shivered."
In order to check whether the gospel is properly used, it is enough to change it to the verb. If the sentence does not lose its meaning, it is applied correctly.
Examples: sitting, yawning from boredom - sitting and yawning from boredom. He sang, rolling his eyes from zeal - he sang and rolled his eyes from zeal.
A verbal participle is a gerundive with a word that depends on it. Examples: painting a fence, carrying away behind itself, quietly singing, beating in foam.
The participial turn, as distinct from the sacramental, in the sentence is always a circumstance. Example: A boy walked quickly along the street, looking around.
He, as well as the sacramental, is a single member of the sentence, refers to one word. Example: He ran (how?), Bouncing from an overabundance of feelings.
Usually a gerundive turnover, independently of the place of localization in the sentence, is separated by commas, and therefore is considered a separate circumstance.
Examples: He walked quickly ahead, afraid to be late. He, fearing to be late, quickly went ahead. He, not realizing the report, was fumbling with a strand of hair.
Sometimes gerundive turnover can be part of a stable phrase (phraseology). In this case, it will not be separated by commas.
Example: Children listened to an unfamiliar song with bated breath.
Communicative and gerundive turnover is most often used in book speech.