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Case endings of nouns. Impersonal case endings

Which case endings have nouns? The answer to this question you will find in the materials of the article. Also, we will tell you about how the case endings of nouns of different declensions differ, and give some examples.

General information

Knowing how words vary by case are extremely important. After all, the spelling of case endings brings a lot of problems during the creation of a literate text. It should be noted that the choice of a particular letter in nouns depends entirely on what kind of declination they refer to. By the way, errors in writing endings -i or -e arise only in some case forms: dative, genitive and prepositional cases. That's why they are recommended to remember.

What is declination? Types of declensions

Nominal parts of speech in the Russian language are declined in accordance with the adjective type, as well as the substantive and pronominal type. In this article, we are only interested in substantive declination. It is subdivided into three subtypes. Let's consider them in more detail:

  1. The first declension changes the nouns (in the singular) of the general (crybaby), the male (papa) and the female (mama) gender, which have the endings -a or -a in the nominative case.
  2. By the 2nd declension the nouns (in the singular) of the masculine gender have a zero ending (nail, house) or the ending -e, -o (domicile, house), and also the middle genus with the endings -e, -e and - O (field, spear, window) in the nominative case.
  3. By the 3rd declension the nouns (in the singular) of the feminine gender change, which end in a sibilant or soft consonant (for example, pride, thought, branch). If such a word has a sibilant consonant at the end, then its affiliation to the third declension should be indicated by a soft sign (for example, a mouse, rye, oven, etc.).

Case endings of singular nouns

To correctly write, for example, a letter, it is desirable to know all possible endings of nouns of different declensions. To do this, one should declare the corresponding words by case.

Nouns of the 1st declension

  1. The nominative case (who? What?) - dad (a), will (a), Kol (I), Yul (y).
  2. The case of genitive (of whom?) - dad (s), will (s), Col (i), Yul (s).
  3. Dative case (to whom?) - dad (e), iv (e), Kol (e), Yul (e).
  4. The case of accusative (what? Whom?) - dad (y), will (y), Kol (yu), Yul (yu).
  5. The instrumental case (than? By whom?) - dad (ow), willow (s), Kol (s), Yul (s).
  6. The prepositional case (about what? About?) - o dad (e), oviv (e), o Kol (e), o Yul (e).

The case endings of the nouns of the 1st declension are the same for all similar words. That is why, if you have difficulties while writing them, you can safely glance at this table and determine the correct ending.

Nouns of the 2nd declension

  1. Nominative case (who? What?) - deer (_), watermelon (_), sex (e), sky (o).
  2. The genitive case (of what? Whom?) Is deer (I), watermelon (a), sex (I), sky (a).
  3. Dative case (to whom?) - deer (yu), watermelon (y), sex (yu), sky (y).
  4. The case of accusative (what? Whom?) Is deer (I), watermelon (_), sex (e), sky (o).
  5. The instrumental case (than? By whom?) Is a deer, watermelon, sex, sky.
  6. The prepositional case (about whom?) Is about deer (e), watermelon (e), about sex (e), about heaven (e).

Nouns of the 3rd declension

  1. Nominative case (who? What?) - trot (_), mouse (_).
  2. The case is genitive (of whom?) - the trot (s), the mouse (s).
  3. The dative case (to whom?) Is the trot (s), the mouse (s).
  4. The case of accusative (what? Whom?) - lynx (_), mouse (_).
  5. The instrumental case (than? By whom?) - lynx (yu), mouse (s).
  6. The prepositional case (about what? About whom?) Is about the trot (s), about the mouse (s).

Stupid case endings of nouns

In order not to make mistakes while writing the text, the teachers recommend that their students remember the endings of all three declensions. However, this is not as simple as it seems at first glance. It is especially difficult to remember those words that have unstressed case endings. But in this case there is a separate rule in Russian. Imagine it right now.

If the case endings of the nouns stand in an unstressed position, then their correct spelling is determined by checking words of the same type of declination that end in a similar letter under stress. Let's give an example:

  • Knee, field, lake (face, window, chisel);
  • About the book, (on the hand);
  • Horses, bowls (stumps, tables);
  • Watchman, house, field, glue (knife, table, point, window);
  • Lake, chair, stone (window, table, stump);
  • About the guard, about the teacher, in the field, about the dress, (about the knife, about the horse, in the window, about the linen);
  • Songs, servants, windows (teachers, cities, seas).

Nouns plural nouns

We have considered the case endings that have nouns of the singular number above. But sometimes it is required to correctly decline words in the plural. It should be especially noted that their case endings do not depend on what declension has the initial form of the noun. However, they can differ markedly in inanimate and animate objects (not always).

Inanimate plural nouns

  1. Nominative case (what?) - chair (s), watermelon (s).
  2. Genitive case (of what?) - chair (s), watermelon (s).
  3. Dative case (to what?) - chair (s), watermelon (s).
  4. Accusative case (what?) - chair (s), watermelon (s).
  5. The instrumental case (what?) - a chair (s), watermelon (s).
  6. Prepositional case (about what?) - about the chair (s), watermelon (ah).

Animate nouns in the plural

  1. Nominative case (who?) - lan (s), lioness (s).
  2. Genitive case (whom?) - lan (her), lionesses (_).
  3. Dative case (to whom?) - lan (yam), lioness (s).
  4. Accusative case (who?) - lan (her), lionesses (_).
  5. The instrumental (by whom?) - lan (yami), lioness (s).
  6. The prepositional case (about whom?) Is about lan (s), lionesses (ah).

Dissimilar words (nouns)

As stated above, nouns have one or another case endings, depending on which of the three declensions they refer to. However, in Russian there are often different words. These include nouns that, after a change in cases, have endings of different declensions.

So, ten words of the middle genus belong to the different nouns, which end in -am. Let's call them in order:

  • burden;
  • banner;
  • tribe;
  • time;
  • stirrup;
  • udder;
  • Crown;
  • flame;
  • name;
  • seed.

Among other things, the word masculine gender "way" refers to the different. In order to correctly induce such nouns, you should know that when they change, they have the suffix -en- or -yon (for example: banner-banner, crown-head, name-name, etc.).


Nouns that end in -i (series, army, Mary, line, etc.) are a special variant of declension. Thus, in the forms of the prepositional, genitive and dative cases, they have the ending -i. Let's give an example:

  • Genitive case (of whom?) - seri (i), army (s), Marie (s), line (s).
  • Dative case (to whom?) - serie (s), army (s), Marie (s), line (s).
  • The prepositional case (about what? About?) - about seri (i), about the army (s), about Mari (i), about the line (s).

It should be noted that these words are not recommended to be confused with the names of nouns that end in -yah (for example, Natalia, Marya, Sofia). After all, they tend to follow the general rules, and also have the ending -e (Natalia, Marya, Sophia) in the forms of prepositional and dative cases.

By the way, the proper names, which are called settlements (Kashin, Borodino Kalinin), have a special form in the instrumental case (in the singular). Thus, the presented words tend to follow the pattern of the nouns of the 2nd declension and have a case ending with the (Kalinin, Kashin, Borodin). One can not help saying that such words should not be confused with Russian surnames (Kashin, Borodin, Kalinin), which in the instrumental case have an ending (Kalinin, Kashin, Borodin).

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