Car ZIS-5: specifications, description and device

Today, trucks are used in logistics. With their help deliver different goods or provide different delivery services. Modern cars with high load capacity are equipped with literally the latest technology - this allows for comfort, as well as driver safety. However, during the Great Patriotic War, feats were performed on trucks. They participated in the delivery of weapons, ammunition, food and water. What did it cost only delivery of food to the Siege of Leningrad. One of these is the legendary ZIS-5 truck. About him and will be discussed.

This car with a carrying capacity of 3 tons was the second in mass production. During the Second World War, he was one of the most massive. We produced this model at the Stalin factory from 1933 to 1948.

Child adjustment

At the very beginning, Otokar was an American model, not very well-known and not very popular, which was going to the AMO. It was very simple in design, and its cost was low, which was very important.

And in 1931 the Moscow Automobile Society successfully underwent modernization, and then on the capacities of the society they began to assemble the new AMO-2. A car was built on the basis of American units and parts. Then there were many more modifications. One can single out AMO-3. This truck had a payload capacity of 2.5 tons - and in 33 years it was reworked. Meanwhile, the plant was renamed, the new name is the Stalin Plant. ZIS-5 is built on the basis of AMO-3, but only on the domestic component base.

In the first batch there were only 10 copies. Conveyor assembly was established at the end of 33 years without the production of an experimental car. The design was very simple, so there was no malfunction during assembly. In the series, the car was launched in the shortest possible time.

Its popular name, and its name was not otherwise than "three-tonk", the ZIS-5 truck received, thanks to its carrying capacity. The Red Army men called the machine respectfully - Zakhar Ivanovich.

As for the design, it is no different from other models of the war years. This is the classic of the automotive industry. Leading engineers participated in the development , and the work was carried out virtually completely from scratch. The main emphasis, which stood before the engineers, was increased maintainability and maximum simplicity. However, at the same time, it was necessary to improve the characteristics of patency and load capacity.

ZIS-5: device

The design was simple, if not primitive. The machine consisted of 4,500 parts. They were mainly made of cast iron, steel and wood. You could dismantle the car with a minimum of tools. Hardware and fasteners were in nine sizes, and it was impossible to break the thread on them. The device was used only 29 bearings.

But for all its simplicity ZIS-5 (car) was quite modern in those days. In the kit there was an electric starter, a diaphragm type gasoline pump, a fuel tank under the driver's seat. Oil was changed after 1200 km, and not after 600, as on other models. The mileage without the need for major repairs was 70,000 km.

Constant improvements

In the course of the improvements, the engineers developed and implemented a new ZIS-5 engine in the gland. AMO Z, and the "American" was equipped with a six-cylinder "Hercules". He gave out 60 horses at 2000 rpm. For "Zakhar Ivanovich" this capacity was not enough.

Therefore, it was decided to increase the size of the cylinders. The result was successful - the capacity increased to 76 liters. from. So, the "three-tonk" became one of the most powerful trucks for that period of time.

The power unit proved to be very reliable. He worked equally on any fuel. He could work effectively even on kerosene. When it was hot, it evaporated no worse than gasoline.

In winter, the unit started, pouring a little gasoline into the cylinders. To do this, I had to unscrew the spark plugs. Then the candles were brought back, and only after these manipulations the ignition knob was turned. Needless to say, the unit was started almost half a turn.


The old gearbox with the new engine refused to work, so I had to quickly create a new design. So, we got a new gearbox for four gears, not three, as it was on the previous model. The gear ratio of this box was 6.6, and on the main gear this number was 6.4. This allowed the ZIS-5 to pull the trailer in 16 tons, while the engine speed was 1700 rpm, and the speed was 4.3 km / h.

The first transmission was used only off-road, or at maximum loads. By the way, the passability of ZIS-5 was just excellent. Low-speed engine, successful transmission, large clearance of 260 mm. The car could drive where others just got stuck.

Gears in the checkpoint of the new design were connected with the intermediate shaft not traditionally, but with the help of splines. This makes it possible to improve the alignment of the gears.

The previous model from "Brown and Lipe" had a simpler design. There the gears were simply planted on a square pal.

The unreliable propeller shaft, which was equipped with three hinges and an intermediate support, was changed to a simpler one. It differed in two hinges. It was easier and cheaper to make them.


Many were confident that the chassis in this truck is rather weak. Rama was difficult to break, she did not bend. However, it could be very easily skewed. For example, if one wheel hits a road bump.

Hard springs did not do any good. And such elasticity was obtained because of the special technology of heat treatment. The crossbars, as well as other parts, were not connected with the spars by traditional welding, but were riveted. If you carry out repairs using welding machines, then it significantly weakened it.


During the war, the engineers faced the task of simplifying the design of the cabin as much as possible. It began to be made of wood, as well as plywood. The wings were made by bending rolling, in the pre-war time they were stamped. The right headlight was dismantled. After the war, of course, the equipment was brought back to normal.

The road survey was not as good as on today's truck models, but there was not much to choose at that time. About comfort can also not remember. To fit between the steering wheel and the driver's seat, you need to be very lightly dressed. Sound insulation in the car was not any - to hear the interlocutor, it was necessary to scream.

The cabin was equipped with a ventilation system, but there was no stove. And if the glasses froze, we had to use ventilation. However, the cabin was perfectly ventilated naturally - there were a lot of cracks.

Brake system

Modern hydraulic brakes in the design was not. They were provided for, but in times of war there was not the right amount of brake fluid. Therefore, the truck could be braked by mechanical rear brakes. By the way, the truck perfectly braked the engine. It is necessary for the driver only to weaken pressure on gas, or absolutely to remove from it a leg as the car there and then was slowed down. After the war, hydraulics still installed.


ZIS-5, a model of the 30-ies with a volume of power unit of 5.5 liters, could produce a power of 73 liters. With, then after completion - 76, and after the war - 85 liters. from. The four-speed transmission allowed to fine-tune traction. The weight of the truck is 3,100 kg, and the maximum speed that was reached was 60 km / h. The fuel consumption could vary from 30 to 33 liters per 100 kilometers.

Due to its design, the machine could easily pass fords up to 0.6 m deep. The maximum lift at full load is 15%. The fuel tank had a volume of 60 liters.

Soldier, hard worker, legend

In 1941, an air raid was made to the plant named after A.Ya. Stalin. It was ordered completely to take out all the production. In 42, the issue was resumed. These trucks carried out a variety of functions in the rear and at the front. There were no buses yet, and 25 people could fit into the body of this car. They were carrying ammunition, various equipment. These cars drove the Red Army soldiers to Berlin and back.

In Moscow, the truck was produced up to 48 years. The last batch was equipped with a new unit - ZIS-120. In total in the Soviet Union was created about a million such copies of trucks. This car is a rather modest toiler with a very long and very confusing fate. Today, these are no longer found on the roads. They are preserved either in museums or in private collections. If you really want to, you can make a smaller model of the car ZIS-5. Drawings are in our article - this is a very fascinating activity.

So, we found out the history of the creation and technical characteristics of the VMS truck.

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