LawHealth and Safety

Accidents are ... Causes of accidents. First aid in case of accidents. The procedure for investigating and recording accidents at work

Industrial accidents are events, as a result of which the insured individual received health damage that occurred at the workplace in the territory of the enterprise or outside it (in specified cases). The consequence of such incidents is usually temporary or persistent disability and even death. An accident that is outside the production is considered to be a similar incident, not related to the performance of labor duties.

Causes of injuries in the workplace

Employees of any industry are more or less at risk of injury. It does not depend on whether an employee is sitting in a cozy office at a table or working in a dangerous and harmful production. An extraordinary situation can occur anywhere, and not every employer is prepared for this. According to the investigation of incidents of industrial injuries, the following causes of accidents are identified:

  • Technical component - faulty equipment or potentially dangerous parts of machines (moving elements, electricity, increased or lowered temperature of materials);
  • Labor conditions - disorder in the workplace, its non-ergonomics, noise, disturbances in ventilation and air temperature;
  • Staff actions - lack of work experience, lack of information about the specifics of production and other factors, age, state of health;
  • Supernumerary situations.

It is these causes most often provoke accidents. This, of course, is not a complete list, but the bulk of those situations that usually lead to injuries.

Classification by severity

Mangles received during the period of performance of labor duties are divided into different groups. They are formed on the basis of identical causes, the nature of the damage and the number of injured persons. One of the main indicators is the graduation of accidents in terms of severity of damage:

  • Lungs - injuries that have a minor and temporary effect on the general condition and ability to work;
  • Severe - significant damage, requiring a long recovery, disability;
  • With a fatal outcome.

The definition of the category of industrial accident is carried out with the help of doctors. For this, the form No. 315 / y is used. It is issued by the medical institution, where the victim first applied for help, at the first request of the enterprise.

There are also group accidents. This is an occupational traumatism received by two or more workers as a result of one incident. Distinguish and "heavy" accident of a group of persons, when one person was seriously injured or died.

What concerns industrial injuries?

Not every adverse event that leads to health problems can be attributed to occupational injuries. A significant role in determining the place and time of the incident. Industrial accidents are unfavorable events that occurred:

  • On the work-house site, if the distance is overcome by working transport;
  • On the territory of the enterprise during the working day, regardless of whether the employee is at his workplace or is resting;
  • During periods of maintenance of equipment, as well as performance of preparatory and final works, even if the labor day is over;
  • During personal hygiene activities carried out on the territory of the employer;
  • When carrying out orders using personal or official vehicles;
  • In the period of elimination of accidents, natural disasters on the objects of the enterprise's property;
  • On the way to the destination of the trip and out of it according to the route.

As persons involved in the activities of the enterprise, not only those who have entered into a labor contract, but also everyone involved in production. These are internship students or persons undergoing retraining, prisoners in prisons and patients with a mental disorder whose work is attracted. In general, anyone who carries out work duties, regardless of the purpose (work, training, personal initiative, correctional labor).

Investigation of occupational accidents

Any incident that occurred as a result of the fulfillment of labor standards and entailed a violation of the state of health must be announced and investigated. This procedure is mandatory for execution by each employer. Investigation of accidents at work allows you to determine the causes of the accident, as well as to get the victim monetary compensation for damage. The process is carried out on the basis of Regulation No. 73 of 24. 10. 02 and art. 227- 231 of the LC RF.

All events that lead to injuries of any type (including those obtained from another person) that have arisen due to external influence, which led to persistent or temporary loss of ability to work, death or the need to transfer to another job are subject to investigation.

Employer's actions in case of occupational injuries

The accident is a serious contingency, requiring immediate action. The employer or his legal representative is obliged:

  • Organize the provision of first aid and transportation of the injured (if necessary) to the hospital;
  • Take emergency measures to eliminate an accident or other emergency that could lead to injury to other employees;
  • Ensure the safety of the situation of the moment of the accident, if it does not threaten the health of others, or fix the situation (photographing, videotaping);
  • Inform the bodies specified in art. 228 TC RF and other regulatory acts or Federal Law, on what happened;
  • In case of severe damage or death, notify the relatives of the victim;
  • Take all necessary measures to organize and conduct an investigation.

Employees, in turn, are obliged to notify in proper time about emergency and emergency situations in the workplace, their state of health and signs of occupational disease.

Establishment of a commission for investigating industrial injuries

The procedure for investigating accidents requires the immediate establishment of a commission whose composition is determined depending on the severity of the incident. The total number of participants is at least 3 people and forms an odd number. Among them, there should not be a person who is responsible for ensuring safety and labor protection at the site of the accident. Each of the victims or his authorized representative has the right to be a member of the commission.

The procedure for investigating accidents (including group) with "light" consequences for health involves the creation of a commission that necessarily includes:

  • The head of the enterprise or his deputy (representative);
  • Members of the trade union for labor protection;
  • Occupational safety specialist.

In the event of injury to workers of a physical person, the representatives of the trade union are replaced by persons on the part of the victim, and the labor protection engineer may be contracted.

If the damage to health is assessed as severe or resulted in death, the commission is created with the involvement of:

  • State. Labor inspector;
  • Bodies of executive power of the subject of the Russian Federation, in which an accident occurred;
  • Persons of the insurer;
  • Members of the trade union.

If in the first case the commission is headed by the head, then in the second - the labor inspector. Objects controlled by Rostekhnadzor are subject to their decisions.

The order of the investigation and the timing

Commission after the formation proceeds to prompt actions, which are to examine the scene of the incident, interview eyewitnesses, familiarize themselves with the regulatory acts that characterize the state of the facility and equipment. During the investigation, contact is established with the trade union organization, which provides information on the percentage of the employee's guilt in the incident. Based on the data received, the commission determines the circumstances and causes of the perpetrators and qualifies the incident as industrial or non-productive injuries.

Getting "light" injuries obliges the commission to complete the investigation within 3 days from the date of the incident. "Severe" cases require 15 days. If the incapacity for work of an employee is not immediately apparent, then the process lasts for a month from the date of submission of the application to the victims.

It is compulsory to record accidents at work, which is maintained according to the developed form in the log of accidents. A copy of the investigation report is kept by the employer for 45 years. When establishing the causes of group and severe injuries, documents are sent to certain authorities.

First aid in case of accidents

Each enterprise must have its own instructions for providing emergency first aid to victims in case of accidents. Employees must have the skills of independent and mutual assistance. In case of occurrence of a freelance situation, it is necessary to assess the situation sensibly, contact a qualified specialist, if there is one in the enterprise, and call an ambulance. If possible, the victim should be assured of safety and assess his condition (pulse, breathing pattern, skin color, presence of consciousness, etc.), which should be reported to doctors.

Investigation and recording of accidents should be carried out under appropriate control. The safety of workers' lives is at stake. The desire of the employer to avoid responsibility should not be encouraged.

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