What questions does the verb answer? The verb answers questions ... Verb table

The study of the Russian language in general schools includes acquaintance with a part of speech, like a verb. What words belong to this group, and to which questions the verb answers, children learn in the second grade. But before you begin to analyze this topic, you need to familiarize yourself with the scientific definition, which sounds like this: a verb is one of the main independent significant parts of speech, which denotes the action produced by the subject. Quite often it can be expressed in a state (sit) , property (stutter) , attitude (equal) , and sometimes even be a sign (blue) .

What is an infinitive?

Beginning with the second class, students learn that the verb answers questions about what to do? Or what to do? It is in this form that the actions are infinitive. In other words, it is an indefinite form that has constant transitional characteristics. Words that answer questions of an undefined verb form, in a sentence can be:

  • Subjects. For example: Learn each one useful.
  • The predicate. For example: To be the rain.
  • An addition. For example: Everyone asked him to play.
  • Definition. For example: She had an irresistible desire to eat.
  • Circumstance. For example: I went for a walk.

What is the transitivity and intransitivity of verbs?

Determining the transitivity of verbs suggests that this part of speech can have the ability to influence the associated noun, changing its accusative case to the genitive. It is this peculiarity of words denoting actions that is called transitivity. For example:

Read books - n. In B.P., an affirmative form of a statement.

Do not read books - exist. In the negative sense, a negative form of utterance.

The remaining verbs refer to intransitive, many of them have the name indirect-transitive.

Recurrence and irreproachability of verbs

When the verb answers the questions what to do? Or what to do? And in its construction has a word-forming suffix- ya: laugh, be proud, afraid of learning, being, indulging, such verbs are called reflexive. As a rule, such forms are formed from verbs without -sa (teach, indulge, find) , but not always, there are also verbs that do not have a generative form (be proud, laugh, fear) . Returning verbs can carry several action values:

  • Aimed at himself: tune, wash, brush, haircut;
  • The interrelated action of two or more subjects: to meet, to put up, to kiss;
  • Committed in the personal interests: to build, fit;
  • Personal condition of the subject: worry, rejoice, have fun, get angry;
  • Potential active sign of a person: bites (can bite);
  • Potential passive feature of the subject: beats (may break);
  • A sign of impersonality: to like, to grow dark, to cook.

As a rule, all reflexive verbs are not transitive, but there are exceptions: to be afraid, to be shy of the pope.

Perfect and imperfect types of verbs

Depending on the permanent morphological feature relating to the nature of the course of the action or its distribution over time, the verbs can have a perfect (CB) and imperfective appearance (NSV).

So, which questions does the verb CB answer? In the infinitive is the question of what to do? As a rule, this form of determining an action can have a finished (read) or reached a certain limit (lose weight) appearance. As a rule, such verbs describe facts. For example: Winter has come, it has become cold and snow has fallen.

In verbal utterances, the use of the verb can be traced as a fact of a recurring action. For example: With it it happens: then laughs, then cries.

At the same time, if they are verbs of an indefinite form (NSW), then they can answer the question of what to do? These words do not characterize a complete or reached a certain limit of action. However, such verbs are used much more often, and can have several meanings:

  • Action as a process. For example: The early spring came, the sun was shining, and the snow melted quickly.
  • Repetition of action. For example: She often reflects.
  • Constant relation of one subject to another. For example: The streets of Lenin and Pushkin intersect.
  • Synonymous value of CB. For example: I already read this article. - I already read this article.

The inclination of verbs

The inclination of verbs is a non-constant morphological sign and has three types: indicative, imperative and subjunctive. Each of them expresses its special relation of action to the present time.

Thus, an indicative mood determines a real action that has already occurred, occurs at a given moment, or will occur in the future. Proceeding from this, it is possible to tell, on what questions the verb of an indicative mood answers: what did? what is he doing? And what will he do?

The imperative mood of the verb, or, as it is also called, the imperative, in fact, is a motivation for action in any form. It could be a plea, a request, or even an order. As with the indicative mood, imperative verbs can change from time to time. The formation of such words can occur with the help of the suffix -i or even without it. Also this inclination of verbs can be in both singular and plural. A zero ending indicates that we have a singular word that answers the initial verb forms: what to do? If it is possible to single out the ending -te , then this is a plural form. For example: take care - take care, go - go, sit - sit.

The subjunctive mood, or, as it is also called, conditional, denotes an action that will take place only under certain circumstances or conditions. This inclination of verbs is formed by attaching a particle to the verb of the past tense. For example: if they would, they would come, they would know.

Variation of verbs from time to time

Time, like the inclination, is a non-constant morphological sign, it is determined by the moment in which there is a speech about a certain action. So, if the action, which is currently in question, has already happened, it is the past tense, if it is happening now - the present time, and if it is only planned - the future.

When the verbs of past tense are formed , the suffix -l is used: villages, saw, knew, and so on . The use of expressions that determine the present time can also refer to events that have already occurred. And such time is only for imperfective verbs, of which we have already spoken. For example: He thought he was ahead of everyone.

The questions of modern verbs can define different values:

  • Consistency: Kalmius flows into the Sea of Azov.
  • Systematic repetition: She always reads fairy tales in the evenings.
  • Potential sign: Some cats scratch.

It is not difficult to guess which questions the verb of the future tense answers, because it indicates the action that will take place after talking about it. For example: In the morning I will go to the market.

Faces of verbs

The verbs of the indicative and imperative mood in the future and in the present tense can have such a variable morphological sign as a person who indicates who the action is. There are 3 forms of the face:

  • 1-st person - the producer of the action is the one who speaks about him;
  • 2nd person - action is performed by one who listens to the narrator;
  • 3rd person - the producers of the action do not participate in its discussion.

Verbs in which you can identify a person are called personal. In the case if a person can not be established, it is an impersonal verb. For example: It's getting dark, it's getting dark, it's getting dark.

Conjugation of verbs

Changing verbs by faces and numbers is called conjugation.



Morph. Symptoms

1st conjugation 2nd conjugation
I 1 liter. Units H. -y, -yu -y, -yu
you 2 liters. Units H. You Is it
He, she, she 3 liters. Units H. -et Is
we 1 liter. Many. H. -eat -them
you 2 liters. Many. H. -e


they 3 liters. Many. H. -out, -youth -at, -yat

The table of verbs of the Russian language has also such words, which can refer to both the first and the second conjugation (depending on their person). Such verbs are called disjoint.

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