EducationSecondary education and schools

What is a household? Functions of the household. Housekeeping

It is the state of households that directly affects the well-being of the population, its material well-being. At present, the rural household is considered a mass economic entity, the state pays attention to it, offering privileges and financial benefits to small farms. It is the household in the modern market economy that is considered an indicator of social policy, and therefore deserves close attention on the part of state structures.

What is a household?

Let's try to understand what a household is, what are its distinctive features. This is a multifaceted phenomenon, relating to all spheres of life of modern society. Interest to the household is shown by:

  • Lawyers;
  • Teachers of educational institutions;
  • Representatives of statistical services;
  • Sociologists;
  • Economists;
  • Known politicians.

The study and management of the household is a state task, especially relevant in modern economic realities. Interest in the household is due to the difficult demographic situation in the country, the numerous problems of rural areas. In our country there are many empty lands, which potential farmers are trying to develop.

Household types

The first mention of housekeeping is found in the pipes of the ancient Athenian thinker Xenophon (430-355 BC). The philosopher described the main functions of the household, proposed the cultivation of grain crops, was talking about gardening.

Aristotle did not stay away from this problem, it was he who introduced the term "economy" as an analogue of the household, theoretically justified housekeeping. The main goal of the personal economy Aristotle set profit, the multiplication of wealth.

Household History

In 1861 the Swiss historian J. Bachofen published the book "Maternal Law", which became the beginning of the study of the household. In it, the Swiss described the basic rules of housekeeping, made conclusions about the importance of home economics.

Homeownership has gone a long way of evolution, associated with the development of land ownership.

So what is a household? This is the activities of the family, a group of people, a particular person who live in a certain area, to provide themselves with all the products necessary for a normal life. In such an economy, the owner who is the leader is chosen. He solves issues related to economic problems and responsibilities. It is the owner who makes the decisions of the material plan, it is responsible for raising the welfare of all members of the economy. In the main, relatives, friends, acquaintances are united to conduct joint activities. Currently, there are different households, in the economy they have already managed to show their relevance and necessity.

Types of households

There are such options:

  • Family household;
  • Transnational household.

If the first option involves the joint residence of all family members, in the second case, the representatives of the economy can live in different countries, have material relations with each other.

Household functions

Such a structure helps to maintain a community of interests, kinship ties, interests. In order to understand what a household is, you need to list its main functions:

  • Reproduction of working resources (birth and education of children);
  • Creation of human capital;
  • Sociality (support for disabled family members);
  • The creation of interpersonal relations;
  • Satisfaction of the individual needs of each member of the family;
  • Saving and accumulation of values (material, spiritual);
  • Development of entrepreneurial abilities.

In addition to property, households own land, money resources, labor. Some household expenses are compensated for through natural exchange. The household decides most of the needs as a result of economic transactions with other farms.

Any households in the economy play an important role, promote the use of land resources, employment of residents. This segment assumes the formation, formation of personality, development of material and spiritual needs of individual families. The basic rules of housekeeping are inextricably linked with labor morals, social norms. It represents a link between the labor market, consumer goods, and the financial market.

Characteristics of the household

In order to understand what a household is, we note that economists have developed certain features for it:

  • Obtaining maximum profit for all members of the community;
  • Team work;
  • Modularity of life.

Household types

Professionals distinguish five variants of farms, taking into account family ties between family members.

  1. The first type will be a farm in which there is only one owner.
  2. The second type of household connects close relatives who do not have marriage obligations.
  3. The third type of farm is organized by a married couple with children.
  4. In the fourth type, except for a married couple, there may be other relatives.
  5. The fifth option involves a large-scale multi-family farm, which consists of several families.

Variants of the classification of households

All households are subdivided according to the following characteristics:

  • A demographic feature that assumes non-family and family farms, the number of members, age and gender characteristics;
  • Territorial and regional character, relating to the nature of housing, the availability of transport, the size of the land plot;
  • Profitability per person, taking into account all types of income received;
  • Economic sign associated with the type of employment, the direction of the enterprise;
  • Labor sign, implying the number of employees, their professional training;
  • Social sign associated with the income of the family.

The importance of households in a market economy

It allows to provide the necessary level of consumer demand, without which the mechanisms of functioning of the economic market are impossible. The consumption of households is connected with money investments, helps to operate the banking system. Such farms are able to be factors in production, enable ordinary people to develop their entrepreneurial abilities.

Any household closely cooperates with other variants of economic entities:

  • Market of services and consumer goods;
  • The market of factors of production;
  • Financial market.

Examples of households for teaching students

Conducting a practical lesson "Household" (Grade 6), the teacher notes the importance of each member of the economy, a clear distribution of rights and responsibilities between them. As a simple example of home business, which you can tell to schoolchildren, we will bring up the cultivation of vegetables (potatoes). This type of business is suitable for families living in rural areas. What should I tell the children about?

The teacher explains to the children the purpose of this business, its features. Children learn about the types of soil that are suitable for cultivating potatoes. Working in groups, schoolchildren offer their business plans, are trained in initial financial literacy. The teacher talks about the possible financial risks of growing this crop, about the ways of storing potatoes. GEF assumes carrying out of design or research activity by each schoolboy, to make the project it is possible on the basis of own house economy.

Housekeeping for girls

Despite the many reforms that are being carried out in the modern education system, girls continue to receive skills in their own households during maintenance lessons. The future housewives receive the initial information of planning the family budget, learn to calculate their monthly budget. In addition, in the lessons of labor, girls learn the basics of cooking, embody recipes in reality, learn to embroider, sew, knit.

GEF involves the development, implementation, as well as the representation by the girls of their own project. Most often it is based on the household. For example, a project for technology in the 5th grade can be associated with the creation of a beautiful lace wipes. A girl can give a finished product to her mother or grandmother or to sell it at a school fair, having received material reward for her work. In the course of such activities, children learn the basics of entrepreneurship that will help them in the future create a successful own household.


Since ancient times man has led a household, provided himself, his family with food, clothing. Since then, a long time has passed, but the relevance of the household has not diminished. In order to survive in difficult economic realities, many families move from large cities to rural areas.

Among the most common types of household that bring a good income, we will highlight the cultivation of cattle, as well as breeding of birds. For example, breeding and raising sheep does not just bring a good income, but it can become a real launching pad for big business. The household is practically no different from a large industrial enterprise. The structure of business organization, the way of selling products, the desire to get the maximum profit from sales is typical of a small farm, and a large company.

The main difference of the household is its small size, the use of labor by relatives and friends. The household in the financial market is no longer limited to simple application of monetary savings, it implies more serious relations with financial organizations. Credits that are given to small farms give them the opportunity to develop.

Households, focused on growing their own products, not only help people survive in difficult economic conditions, but also give hope for tomorrow.

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