The measurement system occupies a special place in the life of society. All existing standards of values should be regulated by law. In the Russian Federation, the Federal Law "On ensuring the uniformity of measurements" is functioning, which will be discussed in detail in this article.
Goals of the Federal Law
According to Article 1 No. 102-FZ, the objectives of the submitted normative act are:
- Protection of legitimate interests, rights and freedoms of citizens and the state from unreliable measurement values;
- Securing the legal basis for ensuring the uniformity of measurements on the territory of the Russian state;
- Assistance to the development of the Russian economy and scientific and technical progress;
- Provision of public and state needs to obtain objective, reliable and comparable results of measurements that could be used to protect the world, the state and citizens.
The tasks of operation No. 102-FZ are thus very simple, but at the same time very exhaustive. The state unity of measurements is the most important principle of the qualitative functioning of absolutely any country. How exactly can this principle be ensured and protected? The answer to this question will be provided in the subsequent articles of the normative act under consideration.
Basic concepts of the Federal Law
The most important concept of the normative act under consideration is the "unity of measurements". This, according to Article 2 of the draft law, is a special state of measurement, in which the results are expressed in units of quantities permitted for Russia, and the measurement accuracy indicators can not go beyond clearly defined boundaries. Measurement is also called a set of operations that are performed in order to determine the value of quantities of a quantitative type.
On the territory of the Russian state there is a special standard of measurement units - the standard of magnitude, which is owned by the entire federation. The standard should be put into operation after the certification of measuring techniques.
Many other concepts are also fixed in the law. However, special attention should be paid not to terms, but to the requirements for units of measurement. It is about them that will be told later.
Requirements for measurements and units of quantities
Measurements should be carried out according to procedures strictly regulated by the state. Techniques should pass a special certification, acceptable in the Russian state. The order of attestation is always established by the executive authorities. There are two types of methods: primary reference and subsequent referent. These two methods differ little from each other. In fact, subsequent reference methods check the primary method.
And what requirements can be imposed on units of quantities? These are the elements that must be transferred to measuring instruments, technical systems, separate measuring devices, etc. There are two types of values: related to international law, established at the General Conference and linked to Russian norms. Characteristics and parameters of units of value, for example, when exporting products, should be established under a contract concluded with the customer.
Requirements for measuring standards and standard samples
Unity of measurements is a phenomenon that could not exist without a special reference base. Primary standards, according to Article 7 of the Federal Law, can not be privatized. Information about them is entered into a special database created by the executive authority. Standards are contained, studied and applied in special metrological institutes in Russia. Comparison with the values established in the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is the responsibility of persons working with standards.
What are standard samples and what are the requirements for them? In accordance with Article 8, it is worth highlighting the reproduction, transmission of the composition and characteristics of the substances, as well as their storage and study as the most important functions that can be carried out by means of standard samples.
About measuring instruments
What are measuring instruments? According to the Federal Law "On Ensuring the Unity of Measurements", these are elements that have been tested and are designed to ensure the norms established by the laws of the Russian Federation on observance of the uniformity of measurements. These are special means, in relation to which the obligatory technical and metrological requirements are imposed concerning the operation and modification of the presented elements.
The entire design of the measuring instruments should ensure that access to certain parts of the measurement is restricted. The purpose of using measuring tools is to prevent unauthorized tuning and interference, which could lead to distortion of measurement results.
On state regulation
Unity of measurements is an extremely important phenomenon for the state and society. Separate instances, vested with power, are obliged to produce quality control over the means of measurement. There are several basic forms of state regulation in the field of measuring unity.
The first thing to highlight is the approval of standard samples or measuring instruments. This type of work is carried out by the executive authority jointly with research institutes and organizations. The second type of state regulation is connected with testing of measuring facilities and special metrological expertise. This is an important element in ensuring the uniformity of measurements. Metrology and certification of measuring techniques are the following form of state supervision. This includes compliance with certified methods, production and packaging of goods, as well as many other functions.
About calibration, accreditation and special organizational fund
Chapters 4-5 of the Federal Law under discussion narrate about the most important components of the process for ensuring the measurement unity. The calibration described in Article 18 is a set of individual operations that are performed to determine the true values of metrological measurements. Calibration processes must be performed using standards. Only qualified professionals are able to perform calibration.
The results of calibration processes are recorded in special documents, which must be subject to accreditation. By the way, accreditation holds a special place in the state system of measurement unity. This process is regulated in the Federal Law "On the National Accreditation System." The process of accreditation of measurement measures includes testing of standard samples or measuring instruments, verification of measuring means, certification of measurement techniques and much more.
Calibration, accreditation of measuring instruments, as well as many other functions, is carried out by a special information fund for measuring unity. The executive body of the federal government regulates the activities of this fund.
On responsibility and financing
Financing of activities in the field of measuring unity is at the expense of the federal budget of Russia. The payment of the relevant works and services is also the responsibility of the state. Any fraud with budgetary funds may entail criminal or civil liability.