One of the most important components of care of the garden is the spring top dressing of fruit trees and shrubs in the spring. Without this, one can not achieve an attractive kind of ornamental plants, as well as an abundant harvest of fruit crops. Remember that the proper feeding of bushes and trees in spring is not only able to saturate the plant with additional elements, but will also support the fertility of the soil, improve its chemical and mechanical properties.
Composition of top dressing
During the vegetation period, the tree repeatedly changes the need for nutrients. It is in the early spring, during the beginning of the growing season, that plants need to be saturated with potassium, a little less with nitrogen and phosphorus. During the flowering period and during its completion, the tree needs nitrogen. At this time there is an intensive growth of shoots. After that plants need phosphorus.
Spring top dressing of fruit trees and shrubs is necessary. But before proceeding to this procedure, it is necessary to take into account all the features of each tree species. For example, conifers require significantly less nitrogen than apple trees and other deciduous trees. After the conifers do not need to grow again fallen leaves. It is also known that in fruit trees with high yields and with time, nutrients are washed from the soil.
The amount of nutrients that are contained in the soil (phosphorus, nitrogen, etc.), directly depends on the concentration of humus, which is in it. In the sandy soil its content is minimal, compared to loam or clay. The potassium content is directly related to the mechanical composition of the soil. Its content in the sand is also minimal.
During the spring feeding all this must be taken into account.
Top dressing in March
Spring top dressing of fruit trees and shrubs in spring should begin in March. Apply fertilizer right in the snow, which melts. It is very convenient. After all, it will become easier to walk on the snow, and with time, it will pull it into the soil and fertilizer.
Soluble preliminary mineral mixes must be spread out into the trunks by a handful (about 30-40 grams). For young trees, you can use only one or two handfuls. For older trees, you need to use more fertilizer (two to five).
Top dressing of young fruit trees and shrubs in the spring should be evenly distributed along the near-barrel circle. The diameter should be more than 1.5 m. For older trees it is necessary to spread the fertilizer along the perimeter of the whole crown. In this zone, the largest number of roots are located, which actively carry out absorption. But if the trees are located on a site under the slope, such fertilization should not be done. They will quickly be washed with meltwater, which often does not linger on the slopes. The same can happen in the case of strongly frozen ground and a large amount of snow.
Top dressing in April
Remember that with snow you can only make nitrogen fertilizer. In April, when the snow finally comes down, phosphorus and potassium should be introduced into the soil. For this, superphosphate, ash and potassium sulfate are used. When choosing fertilizers, pay attention to the composition. After all, for example, complex mixtures should not be used in April, because they consist of a large amount of nitrogen. In this case, you can significantly exceed the content of this element in the soil. This, in turn, can lead to a decrease in the viability of the plant and provoke the development of various fungal diseases.
Most often use two options for fertilizing:
- In March, nitrogen fertilizers are used, and in April - phosphorus and potash fertilizers;
- Use complex spring fertilizers both in March and in April.
Top dressing in May
May also should take care of the plants. Spring top dressing of fruit trees and shrubs in spring, in May, involves the use of overgrown manure or ripe compost. If you do not have organic materials at your fingertips, you can use a complex mineral mixture in which the nitrogen content is slightly exceeded. In May, the fertilizer application rate also depends on the soil and its fertility. The maximum dose should be used for wood-podzolic soil types, the minimum for chernozem, and the average for wood sulfur.
Fertilizing fruit trees and shrubs in the spring is quite effective when using fertilized mulch, which is covered with tree trunks. It becomes an effective top dressing, especially if it is covered with straw, compost or leaves.
Fertilizer for trees
Spring top dressing of fruit trees and shrubs in early spring together with organic and mineral fertilizers is ideal for fruit and deciduous crops. But this scheme is completely unacceptable for evergreens. Such complex fertilizers will affect them undesirable.
After all, these mixtures contain nitrogen in sufficiently large amounts, which causes the active growth of new shoots. And this action can not withstand every tree. Manure is also not used for these types of trees.
For coniferous plants, it is best to use special fertilizers, which are designed for top dressing of conifers. They have a completely different composition of the basic microelements. In such fertilizers contains a large number of substances, among which must necessarily be present magnesium. From organic it is better to use biohumus and rotted compost.
Remember that the use of spring fertilizers is only necessary for old coniferous trees. For such breeds remember: let the tree be better without feeding, than its overfeed.
What do I need to know?
Spring fertilizing of fruit trees and shrubs has some rules that every gardener should remember!
2. Carry out seedlings only after full rooting.
3. Each top dressing should be carried out in cloudy weather or in the late evening.
4. Fertilizers in dry form should be applied either before watering, or immediately after it. The exception is the March feeding, which is made according to melting snow.
Remember that liquid fertilizers should only be applied to moist soil. If you do not follow this rule, the root system of the tree may get burned. They, in turn, can lead to a prolonged illness of the plant or even to its death.
Fertilizer for shrubs
Spring fertilizing of fruit trees and shrubs in the spring will get a good harvest. The first top dressing should be done during the formation of new shoots (up to about 2 cm).
If potash, phosphoric, and organic fertilizers were introduced in the fall, then only nitrogen should be used in the spring. In the basal zone it is necessary to make:
- Ammonium nitrate - 20 g;
- Calcium nitrate - 35-40 g;
- Urea - 12-15 g.
Feeding of fruit trees and shrubs in spring organic substances should be carried out in the event that in the fall period, fertilizers were already introduced. To do this, you need to dilute the manure with water in the bucket and add 1 table to it. A spoonful of urea. For each plant, you need to enter a bucket of feeding 2-3 liters. Remember that immediately after such a top dressing it is necessary to conduct abundant watering of the plant. The second feeding by the same method should be carried out in two weeks. We also carry out the third top dressing.
If you do not have access to organic fertilizers, you can replace them with mineral fertilizers. Such a fertilizer must be prepared independently from a bucket of water, 25 g superphosphate, 20 g amian nitrate and 15 g potassium sulfate. This bucket is designed for 2-3 bushes. After applying fertilizers, it is necessary to water the plant abundantly.
Remember that the holes under the bushes should be no more than 60 cm in diameter and 10 cm in depth. After applying fertilizers and abundant watering, the holes must be covered with earth or peat mulching.