Sparta - a real warlike state, the soldiers of which for a long time kept in fear not one ancient state. Some countries believed that this was possible only through supernatural forces. It was believed that it was impossible to defeat the Spartans. However, in fact, the main reason for the victories of a militant state was the special training of citizens.
The education of the Spartans as warriors was the most important task that the rulers set. It can not be said that the state was constantly preparing for an aggressive campaign. The Spartans wanted peace, but at the same time they were afraid of losing the conquered lands: the valley of Evrot and the plain of Messenia. And they did not have to defend these territories from neighbors who lost them, but from slaves who always dreamed of freedom. Given the links with the Dorian communities, Sparta participated in campaigns to Athens. In addition, more than once many states of the Ancient World went to war with a powerful state and tried to seize it. Therefore, the government required the training of soldiers to protect the state from both external and internal enemies.
Especially for this was developed a system of educating the Spartans, according to which the citizens of Sparta could not live separately from each other, they had to serve the country, listen to their commander. Thus, since birth, boys have been viewed not as sons, but as pupils of the whole society.
Spartan education began with the birth of the child. Each newborn boy was shown to so-called doctors who were experts in physical health. If they decided that the child is weak, then he was left in the mountains of Taiget to the will of the natural elements. Children were not swaddled, their limbs were open to the air and the sun, so they were tempered. Since the age of seven, the state has taken care of the new warrior for himself.
Spartan education was divided into 3 stages depending on age. Among them are the following:
- from 7 to 12 years;
- from 12 to 20;
- from 20 to 30.
From the age of 7 to 12, Spartan upbringing implied the association of boys into groups. The children played and studied at the same time. At the same time, their mentors tried to provoke a fight in order to see the weaknesses and strengths of each ward. Particular attention at this stage was paid to physical education.
From the age of 12 to 20, the boys were on training in agels, peculiar boarding schools. The leader of this association was either the older boy, or the most intelligent and mobile of his peers. His duties were to lead an asteroid and punish the guilty. The punishments were brutal. Usually it was flogging. None of the inmates could complain, he had to endure any punishment. Obligatory condition was submission. Each soldier had to follow the orders of the senior leader implicitly. During this period, the boys were subjected to severe physical tests. They were forbidden to wear underwear. They slept on the reeds, and washed in the river.
Spartan upbringing from the age of 20 to 30 implied the union in sissitia. At the age of 20 warriors received small land plots where they cultivated fruit crops. For this they paid the tax. At this age they were allowed to have a family, raise children. However, military training continued to occupy an important place in the life of the Spartan. Young men, who reached the age of 20, united in 15 people. Thus, in their circle they trained during the day, and in the evening they could go to their homes.
Spartan warriors were obedient citizens who easily tolerated the pain and won in battle. They studied such disciplines as scout art, swimming, gymnastics, equestrian sport. Reading and writing were given a minimum value.
Spartan upbringing is a unique system that for a long time made children of these warriors.