Signs of meningitis should be considered. This disease affects the population of some African countries more often by 40-50 times than the inhabitants of Europe. Such damage to the body is treated only in the hospital. Without timely medical intervention, the percentage of deaths is high.
Pathogens of meningitis
This is a serious disease in which the membranes of the brain and spinal cord become inflamed. A specific single agent in the case of this disease can not be distinguished. Signs of meningitis can appear as a result of the action of a large number of microorganisms. They can be conditionally grouped into two groups:
- Causing purulent meningitis bacteria (pneumococcus, hemophilic rod, meningococcus). Less commonly E. coli, streptococci, protozoan mycoplasmas, fungi, helminths, amoebas and other microorganisms.
- Causing serous meningitis. Enterovirus, less often the herpes virus and mumps. The cause may be syphilis, tuberculosis, HIV infection.
Causes that stimulate the onset of meningitis
The presence of an agent in the human body is not always a sufficient reason to show signs of meningitis. Until all the mechanisms of the onset of the disease have been thoroughly studied. But there are some reasons for this brain damage:
- Significant weakening of the body's immunity as a result of various factors.
- As a complication after various operations and diseases.
- Appearance of new unvaccinated forms of pathogen.
- Other, less common causes.
Signs of meningitis
Inflammation of hard shells of the brain is rare (pachymeningitis). In clinical practice, meningitis is more often called inflammation of the soft and arachnoid membranes of the brain. This is a common variant of this disease (leptomeningitis).
Now the lethal outcomes of this disease are significantly reduced. This occurs as a result of effective treatment, but the main factor is the timely access to a specialist. For this, it is necessary to know the signs of meningitis.
Symptoms of this brain damage:
- Progressive deterioration of health and fever.
- Muscle aches and cramps.
- Hyperesthesia (not always).
- Headache, which is rapidly growing. Strengthens with various stimuli (change of body position, loud sound and active light).
- Signs that determine the specific pathogen. Rhinitis and pneumonia - pneumococcus. Rash is meningococcus. Intestinal disorders - enterovirus infection. The pathology of the salivary glands is parotitis.
In the future, the development of meningitis (about a day) is accompanied by confusion, drowsiness, irritability. In later stages, paralysis of the limbs may occur , difficulty in swallowing. The disease leads to brain edema and confusion in stupor or to whom (similar to a stroke). There is a risk of death.
To conduct effective treatment, the diagnosis is clarified with the help of lumbar puncture and laboratory studies of various traditional (feces, blood, urine) and special analyzes (bacteriological study of mucus from the nasopharyngeal passages).
Treatment and prevention
The treatment of meningitis is rather difficult even in hospital units. The course of prescription drugs and the timing of their use depend on the clinic of meningitis and the presence of complications. Transience of the disease causes a high percentage of deaths.
Viral and bacterial meningitis is contagious. Especially some of its forms. Therefore, vaccination against meningitis is used as a preventive measure. In Russia, vaccinations against certain pathogens of this disease (measles, mumps, and others) are mandatory.
Other non-specific preventive measures are: avoiding contacts with people with meningitis, refusing to travel to African countries, limiting bathing in open water.