The heart of man is an important organ. On his right work depends on health and life. A large number of diseases of this organ are known. Sinus arrhythmia is a pathology that causes many disputes among doctors. On the one hand, it is caused by psychological reasons and does not affect health. It is necessary to regulate the psycho-emotional component, how the symptoms will pass. But there is a pronounced sinus arrhythmia, which threatens with certain negative consequences. What is this disease?
The heart of a man beats at a certain frequency, which is normally 60-80 beats per minute. Sometimes, under the influence of some factors, the pulse becomes more frequent or, on the contrary, becomes less frequent.
Sinus arrhythmia of the heart: what is it?
This disordered work of the heart, when the gap between the blows is constantly different. Sometimes the heart knocks more often than is necessary, sometimes less often. The heart can normally break its rhythm, but more often it happens under the influence of physical exertion, and in a calm state the manifestation of arrhythmia is a pathology. There is often a respiratory arrhythmia, in which the heart rate increases with inhalation and decreases with exhalation.
On the ECG the teeth of the QRST complex remain unchanged, that is, their shape and duration do not change. The QRST complex is preceded by the scar P, and this is also manifested by constant intervals of PQ (T), while the RR intervals are shortened if the rhythm increases and, conversely, lengthens if the rhythm slows down. All these intervals are closely related to breathing.
Sinus respiratory arrhythmia is diagnosed more often in people at a young age, after the transferred infectious diseases. Also, against this background of neurocirculatory dystonia, this type of arrhythmia is detected.
Types of arrhythmia
There are two main types of arrhythmia:
Moderate arrhythmia most often affects children and adolescents. The state of health does not suffer particularly. Severe sinus arrhythmia usually occurs in the elderly. Its manifestations are very visible. But it happens in adolescents, this form of ailment, it all depends on the degree of development of violations.
Causes of sinus arrhythmia
Sinus arrhythmia of the heart - what is it? This is a deviation from the norm of the work of the heart. The factors provoking the development of pathology are several:
1. Violations in the composition of the blood. There are not enough electrolytes, calcium, potassium, magnesium are not supplied in the right amount. The heart muscle suffers, as a result, it changes. Without potassium and magnesium, it becomes relaxed, loses its elasticity. This is fraught with various heart rate failures. Lack of the right amount of calcium leads to cardiac edema, because excess fluid accumulates in the body. It is important to monitor the diet, which provides the right amount of useful minerals.
2. Failure of the node responsible for the rhythm of the heart. Due to age-related changes, the heart muscle is depleted, which leads to arrhythmia. Diseases that give complications to the heart also lead to problems with the sinus node.
3. Hypoxia, or lack of oxygen in the blood. The heart loses the necessary useful substances.
4. Arterial hypertension, or increased blood pressure, leads to the wear of the heart muscle.
5. Too much oxygen in the blood, as well as its lack, negatively affects the heart rhythm.
In addition, sinus arrhythmia occurs with coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, myocarditis, heart failure, cardiomyopathy and heart disease. Various illnesses can cause ailment, for example bronchitis, asthma, diabetes mellitus, contribute to the development of pathology and abnormalities in the thyroid gland.
Only with the help of special research methods it is possible to establish the true cause of sinus arrhythmia. Only a specialist can do this. Therefore, at the slightest suspicion of a cardiac dysfunction, you need to see a doctor.
Two types of rhythm disturbance
The rhythm of the heart, as already mentioned, can slow down or accelerate. These processes are called bradycardia and tachycardia, respectively.
Severe sinus arrhythmia in adults can be represented by these two types.
Consider the main causes of tachycardia:
- reduced the amount of hemoglobin in the blood, resulting in anemia;
- the hormonal background (as a rule, it concerns a female half of mankind) is broken;
- the human body can overheat, for example, in extreme heat or in a steam room;
- excessive physical or emotional stress;
- taking medications that have a negative effect on the heart rate.
Often doctors diagnose a "sinus bradycardia with pronounced sinus arrhythmia". What causes this form of pathology? Bradycardia can occur due to the following factors:
- Just like with tachycardia, taking medicines can affect the rhythm of the heart, but they cause it to slow down (bradycardia);
- excessive cooling leads to a decrease in the frequency of sinus rhythm;
- the thyroid gland produces an insufficient amount of hormones;
- in professional athletes the rhythm of the heart is reduced;
- weakness of the sinus node leads to bradycardia;
- retirement age provokes a slowdown of heart beats.
Many are faced with extrasystoles - a sharp reduction in the site or the entire heart muscle. This provokes a heart rate failure. There is a pronounced sinus arrhythmia.
Causes of extrasystole
Let's name the main factors:
- abuse of coffee and tea;
- constant stress, which has a negative effect on the nerves and heart;
- a shortage of minerals, in particular potassium;
- failure of the heart muscle.
How does extrasystole manifest itself?
Most often a person with this pathology complains about such conditions:
- the heart seems to freeze, and then starts to knock harder;
- constant fear, and causeless;
Feeling of lack of air.
Sinus arrhythmia, moderately pronounced, occurs when the heart deviates from the rhythm in one direction or another by about 10%. There are disruptions in the rhythm when changing the position of the body, especially sharp. If the body reacts in this way, it is considered a variant of the norm. But with frequent repetitions of extrasystole it is better to insure yourself and undergo a survey. Let the cardiologist analyze the results and recommend the treatment, of course, if he deems it necessary.
Symptomatic of severe arrhythmia
Severe sinus arrhythmia manifests itself in various symptoms:
- with tachycardia, a strong pulsation is felt, especially in the temporal region;
- unpleasant sensations in the left part of the chest;
- deterioration of well-being at increased load;
- a constant lack of oxygen;
- dizziness (more often present with a slow heart rate);
Weakness (with bradycardia).
We listed the main symptoms accompanying such a pathology as pronounced sinus arrhythmia of the heart. What is dangerous for this disease?
With severe arrhythmia, syncope can occur, as blood circulation is disturbed and blood does not flow to the brain in full. If this happens, you should immediately consult a doctor.
An attack of arrhythmia can be overtaken suddenly. The person will experience the following symptoms:
- Shortness of breath;
- noise in ears;
- Wadded feet;
- Strong heartbeat more than 140 beats per minute;
- darkening in the eyes;
- fainting condition.
If a person experiences all this, it is necessary to try to calm him down and call an "ambulance".
Severe sinus arrhythmia in the child
Children and adolescents also often suffer from sinus arrhythmia. Often this is due to an abnormal breathing stereotype. But it happens that affect the congenital heart disease, VSD, as well as changes in the hormonal background in the transition years.
How can a child describe his condition? He often complains of a painful sensation in the heart, weakness, excessive fatigue, lack of air. The doctor will listen to the pulse of a small patient, examine the skin. Assign an electrocardiogram, an ultrasound, a holter. Sometimes only one method of investigation is prescribed, especially if the sinus arrhythmia is moderate.
But the expressed sinus arrhythmia of the heart is quite dangerous.
If abnormalities are detected, a pediatrician, a pediatric cardiologist, an endocrinologist, a neurologist will be consulted. With pathologies of the nervous system, cardiovascular disease may suffer. Children are treated for their age. It is necessary to think over the mode of work and rest, it is good to visit a sanatorium.
The regulation of nutrition is the main task of parents. From the diet, foods that are high in caffeine, fatty and sweet foods are excluded. A large number of fresh vegetables and fruits will help provide the body with fiber, as well as essential vitamins.
The emotional background of the child will help to restore the therapist. The child should be protected from stress.
The main danger with sinus arrhythmia is the complications - the onset of heart failure and cardiac dysfunction.
What can be done to avoid encountering such a disaster as pronounced sinus arrhythmia in a child?
Prevention of sinus arrhythmia in children
The main preventive measures are the following:
- high-grade food;
- a balanced mode of rest and work;
- feasible physical activity;
- reception of vitamin complexes, which include the essential amino acids;
- struggle with stress;
- rejection of bad habits (smoking and drinking alcohol in adolescents);
- Diagnosis and treatment of any disease, which will help to avoid complications in the heart.
Methods of diagnosis
Of course, a person himself can detect deviations in his heart rhythm. But sometimes, under the influence of psychological factors, these feelings can be subjective. That is, a person feels sick, although in fact the rhythm of his heart is within normal limits.
In order not to be in constant fear for your health, you need to undergo a complete examination. What ways exist? The easiest is the ECG. Severe sinus arrhythmia is easily determined.
The cost of research is minimal, and in municipal institutions it generally does not cost anything. It is carried out quickly at the time of treatment. The result can be deciphered by a cardiologist. After decoding, a diagnosis is made.
ECG is carried out as follows: to the hands, feet, chest attached sensors on the suckers, so that the heart rate is read. If a deviation is detected with a normal ECG, a sample with a load can be assigned to the patient for a more accurate diagnosis. A special device reads the rhythm during exercise. In addition, daily monitoring of the heart rhythm is often recommended. Then a monitor is attached to a person who measures heart beats at home around the clock. The patient should record his feelings in a special journal.
These methods of research are more informative, because in normal research there may be no glitch. It also very often makes sense to do an ultrasound of the heart, in the course of which the causes will be revealed that contributed to the development of pronounced sinus arrhythmia. Treatment will be discussed below.
Diet with arrhythmia
With sinus arrhythmia, foods rich in microelements useful for the heart are recommended. For example, buckwheat, spinach, avocado, beans contain a large amount of magnesium. Potassium is abundant in bananas, dried apricots, cabbage, potatoes, mushrooms, and parsley. Sources of calcium are seafood, milk and all kinds of dairy products, fish, corn, beets, seeds and artichokes. Useful for sinus arrhythmia beet tops and carrots, as well as algae. But salt and sugar are destructive for a person with arrhythmia. Eat five times a day in small portions. Fry food is unacceptable, all dishes should be cooked for a couple or baked in the oven.
Nutritionists have developed a special table number 10. In this diet, the main people are lean meat, fish, omelets, dairy products with a low fat content, soups on vegetable broths. Of soft drinks are weakly boiled tea, it is better to exclude coffee altogether, but if this is not possible, then it should be not strong. Broth of dogrose is very useful in violation of heart rhythm. In addition, it contains a lot of vitamin C. For the heart will be useful decoction of hawthorn.
The diet for sinus arrhythmia is constructed according to the following principle:
- proteins - about 100 g;
- fats - about 70 g;
- Complex carbohydrates - 350 g.
Freshly squeezed vegetable juices - carrot, beet, cabbage, tomato - are useful for heart rhythm.
If you adhere to proper nutrition and a healthy lifestyle, the effect comes after 2 weeks. Such nutrition significantly reduces the burden on the heart.
It is unacceptable to drink alcoholic beverages, you must quit smoking.
Every day you need to do gymnastics, this is useful for strengthening the heart muscle. The level of cholesterol should be strictly controlled.
Do not take uncontrolled medications, especially diuretics. They should be prescribed only by the attending physician.
A person who has decided to take up his health in person, must necessarily show willpower. After all, it's pretty hard to deny yourself fried food or a piece of cake with cream. But without this it will not be possible to achieve a positive result. Especially if there is a pronounced sinus arrhythmia.
Pregnancy and sinus arrhythmia
Pregnancy is a crucial period in a woman's life. The body is under tremendous strain. The heart is not an exception. His rhythm changes, as the amount of pumped blood increases almost twofold. It is during pregnancy that cases of cardiac arrhythmia are frequent. The most likely extrasystoles.
The woman feels intermittent and begins to worry about her health and the health of her baby. And although it is harmless, it does cause some inconvenience. Recommendations here may be a decrease in physical activity, as well as the removal of psychoemotional stress.
It is also necessary to adjust the diet, remove from the diet of harmful foods, such as tea, coffee, chocolate.
Pregnant need less worry, more rest and spending time in the fresh air. Also, constant monitoring of the doctor is required if there is a sinus arrhythmia of the heart. What is the danger of the disease? Various complications.
Moderate sinus arrhythmia treatment as such does not require. Extrasystoles are found in almost all people. But if the pathology passes into a pronounced form, it gives discomfort, therapy is necessary. You need to be treated again and then to avoid serious consequences, such as poor blood supply to the brain, a constant loss of consciousness. Therefore, it is important to equalize the sinus rhythm. Severe sinus arrhythmia can be manifested by bradycardia.
If a person has this deviation from the norm, then he can install a special device (pacemaker), which will increase the number of heartbeats. This device is small in size, it penetrates under the skin. Electropulse, which he sends to the atria and ventricles, help the heart to contract. This is required for those people who suffer greatly from a bradycardia, mainly they are tormented by constant faints.
And in cases where the heart beats slowly, but the rhythm is within the permissible limits of the norm, then the pacemaker is not necessary to establish. Then the doctor can choose a therapy that is effective. This is done depending on the causes of arrhythmia.
So, if sinus arrhythmia caused permanent stress, then the treatment will be aimed at calming the nervous system. Of the drugs prescribe "Novopassit", tincture of valerian and motherwort, "Corvalol", "Glycine".
These medications help to relieve nervous overexertion, normalize sleep. In especially severe cases, with nervous and mental disorders, a psychotherapist will be required to prescribe tranquilizers and antidepressants.
Also, often prescribed special vitamins for the heart muscle: potassium, magnesium, calcium. Effective herbs, such as chamomile, a leaf of raspberry. Physiotherapeutic procedures have a beneficial effect on the work of the heart.
Now you know what a pronounced sinus arrhythmia means. We also painted the methods of treatment. Adhere to a healthy diet, lead a normal lifestyle, do not abuse alcohol and on time visit the doctor at the slightest suspicion of cardiac dysfunction. Be healthy!