Secondary immunodeficiency is a violation of the immune system, which develops in the postnatal period. It can also occur in adults.
There are three types of secondary immunodeficiencies: induced, acquired, spontaneous.
One of the striking examples of the acquired form is AIDS. The violation of immunity, in this case, is due to the action of the human immunodeficiency virus.
The induced form arises from the action of specific causes that lead to its appearance. These include X-ray radiation, the use of corticosteroids, cytostatic therapy, surgical interventions, trauma, impaired immunity, which develops secondary to the underlying disease (kidney, liver, diabetes, malignant neoplasms).
In the absence of an obvious cause, which causes a violation of reactivity, secondary immunodeficiency is called spontaneous. Clinically, it manifests itself often as relapsing diseases of an infectious and inflammatory nature in the bronchopulmonary apparatus, paranasal sinuses, urogenital, gastrointestinal tract, eyes, skin, soft tissues that are caused by conditionally pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, sluggish, chronic, often relapsing inflammatory processes of diverse localization in adults determine the clinical manifestations of secondary immunodeficiency states.
In this disease, the function of all links of the system is disrupted: T-, B-cell, phagocytic, complement. To identify such defects, patients are divided into three groups:
- there are pronounced deviations in immunity, which are combined with changes in its parameters;
- there are only signs of a lack of immunity, which are not accompanied by a change in its parameters;
- there are changes in parameters that are not accompanied by signs of immune deficiency.
Secondary immunodeficiency is revealed through laboratory tests: the determination of the immune status (the number of leukocytes, subpopulations of B- and T-lymphocytes, the level of immunoglobulins M, G, A, phagocytosis) is studied. Additional methods are the identification of concomitant pathology and its further treatment. Nonspecific parameters of the acute phase, interferon status are also determined. Instrumental diagnosis is also an essential diagnostic factor that reveals this condition. Only after carrying out all diagnostic studies, specific medication is prescribed, which helps prevent the development of such a disease as a secondary immune deficiency.
Treatment of this condition is carried out in accordance with its severity and concomitant pathologies.
When the cells that belong to the monocyte-macrophagal complex are affected, polyoxidonium, lycopid, molgamostim, filgrastim, leucomass are used.
Defects of cellular immunity require the use of polyoxidonium, tactin, tamopin, imunofana, thymogen, thymolin, myelopida.
Substitution therapy is recommended for violations of the humoral link. Apply sandoglobulin, octagam, intraglobin, immunoglobulin, biaven, pentaglobin.
Secondary immunodeficiency inpatient treatment is cured after 20-30 days. In the future, patients should be observed by a physician-immunologist and specialists in basic diseases. When the disease worsens, a second treatment is required, for which the above drugs are used.