What is the program "21 century. Primary School"? The responses of teachers working on it are very ambiguous. Some are convinced that this method is necessary for the harmonious development of the personality of a modern child, other teachers categorically reject such a variant of education and upbringing of the younger generation.
Features of the program
The foundations of the developmental education laid down in this project are the result of many years of searching for and researching a large and friendly team of specialists from the Primary School Center of the ISMO (Institute for Secondary General Education of the Russian Academy of Education). In addition, some employees of the Russian Academy of Education took an active part in the development. Textbooks for the first grade were created under the guidance of NF Vinogradov, professor, doctor of pedagogical sciences, corresponding member of RAO.
Prerequisites for creating a new methodology
Before such a theory appeared, dozens of teachers and psychologists worked hard on it. The GEF program "Elementary School. 21 century "was developed on the basis of the theory of LS Vygotsky. It reflected the methods of developing education DB Elkonin, AV Zaporozhets, VV Davydov. The program has elements of the concept of a promising elementary school, proposed by NF Vinogradova, AM Pyshkalo.
The main idea of QMS
What is so good about the program "21 century. Primary School"? The feedback of the teachers using this training and methodological set indicate that it offers several ways of modernizing the modern primary education, new approaches to the goal, the main content of the material are disclosed. This method of raising and teaching children of primary school age in a regular school has been successfully tested. The author's team, working on the creation of the CMD, has developed special textbooks for the first grade.
Features of the methodical kit
In addition to the book for students, the authors of the program also created special books for primary school teachers. Special notebooks of the elementary school of the 21st century were also published. A separate edition for teachers was issued and methodical recommendations, and pourochnye planning for each academic discipline. What is different from other methods of the program "21 century. Primary school? "Reviews of parents whose children have already completed training on it are mostly positive. They note that the children were much easier to adapt to the middle link, they did not have problems with their studies.
Completion of QMS
A full-fledged educational and methodical package "Elementary school of the 21st century. The World around "includes a book edited by NF Vinogradov, as well as a special workbook on this subject. Also in UMK there is a primer created by Evdokimova OA, Zhurova LE Problems for the 1st class in mathematics collected by VN Rudnitskaya have interesting content, clear questions. When performing their children learn to think, to think logically, to choose the right variant from several proposed ones. Literacy and reading are taught according to the textbook "Literary Reading" offered by Efrosinina LA All the benefits that are included in this training kit have been (recommended) to be used by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. If the tasks for the first class in mathematics are based on the development of logic, then in such a subject as technology, attention is paid to the formation of practical skills.
Features of QMS
The main principle of modern education is present in the methodology: the primary school is natural. Features of the learning process are that at this age the main need of schoolchildren is communication, productive activity. These features were taken into account by the authors of the methodology, they clearly defined what the pupil of the 2nd grade should be able to do. Individual and typological features of cognitive activity of schoolchildren were taken into account, and the level of their socialization was determined. How is the program "21st century. Primary School"? The responses of teachers and parents confirm the timeliness of the introduction of this methodology, its effectiveness.
Psychologists noted the importance of the adaptation period for first-graders. It is thanks to this time that first-graders, depending on the degree of readiness for schooling, pass without any problems from the preschool period to a full-fledged school life. The authors of this methodical set put special emphasis on the development of integrated academic disciplines offered to first-graders in the first half of the year. Logical problems, which solve the guys, help them to study the surrounding nature, to learn the basics of reading and writing. The subject "The World around", in addition to educational functions, provides and soft adaptation of yesterday's kids to a new type of activity.
Such integration, which allows for a comprehensive perception of the schoolchild of a given age of nature, is replaced in due course by special differentiated courses. Logical problems, offered to first-graders in the second half-year, help to form a full picture of the surrounding reality among schoolchildren. This tendency is taken as a basis for the construction of the educational discipline "The World around" in grades 2-4. The course "Elementary school. 21st Century "(2nd class) is aimed at solving one of the priority tasks of modern primary education - the formation of the main components of educational activity. This idea of constructing the process of teaching primary school students was offered by theorists of developing education. The authors of the set "Elementary School. 21 century "set a goal to create a methodology for this option for Russian schools, regardless of the location of the school, the level of training of teaching staff.
GEF in primary school
New federal state standards, created for the initial stage of training, introduced a reading rate in grade 1. It is defined taking into account the fact that the authors of the CMD have focused on the application of modeling activity of primary school pupils. The authors have created a special system of games with rules, through which the quality and skills necessary for the learning process are developed. The structure and content of the funds used to achieve the set goals reflect innovative approaches to the formation of evaluation and monitoring activities of junior schoolchildren. The CMB assumes a special ruble called "Test Yourself", as well as tasks like "find mistakes", "compare your answer with the text".
New trends in primary school
Updating the content of education and upbringing in the Russian elementary school presupposes a gradual transition from reproductive and instructive activities to research, research and design work. The educational and methodological set, successfully applied in almost all modern Russian educational institutions, does not imply the mastering of the role of a simple "listener" by schoolchildren, but a transfer to the function of the "researcher". Now the first-graders not only listen attentively to their mentor, memorize the material, reproduce it in the course of the lesson, they are valuable objects of educational activity.
The child is interested in finding answers to the questions that worry him, gaining new knowledge on his own. Before embarking on some new task, the student sets himself a hypothesis, that is, he makes his assumptions about the material in question. Already in the first class the student is looking for his own algorithm of actions, enters into a scientific discussion with classmates, a teacher-instructor. The teacher no longer poses problems for the children at the beginning of cognitive activity, each student has a real opportunity to independently "discover" for himself the scientific material, to conduct a full-fledged own research.
The authors of the analyzed educational and methodological set set such a task as increasing the attention of teachers and parents to the creative work of schoolchildren. It implies the independence and initiative of each child. In order to cope with this serious problem in practice, teachers propose to increase the importance of problem-based learning, and spend a lot of time on developing the independence of students. Gradually, with the physiological growth of children, it is also expected to increase the complexity of tasks designed for schoolchildren.
The creative activity of children is enhanced by the improvement of such a mental process as imagination. This training methodology involves the use of a role-playing game system . It is thanks to them that the students have an opportunity to develop different facets of behavior, to form creativity and imagination in every child. The urgency and expediency of conducting role games at the initial stage of training is confirmed by practice, therefore such activity became an obligatory structural element of the subject "The World around" in the 1st and 2nd grades. In the textbook there is a special rubric called "Journey to the past", which involves stimulating the creative activity of children.
The specificity of the "school of the 21st century"
The authors of this kit paid special attention to the opportunities for each child to show their individuality. In all the teaching aids offered by the authors of the methodology, a material is suggested that allows the teacher to take into account the success and own pace of the baby, the level of his intellectual development. The textbooks included in this program assume the availability of additional educational content. Thanks to this, a very high culturological, erudite learning background is created. In new realities, the child has been relieved of the obligation to know a certain educational material in a perfect way, and he is given the right to develop his educational trajectory. This approach of the authors contributed to the development and implementation of innovative approaches to modern differentiation of primary education.
Now the teacher carries out purposeful support, taking into account the different class of the class. Special developmental and corrective workbooks, which were specially developed for all the academic disciplines, give the teacher the opportunity to abandon the classic work option, aimed at the "average" student. Now he can direct his professional activity to purposeful work with junior schoolchildren, given the level of success, the capabilities of each child.
UMK offers a painstaking work system for an elementary school teacher, which is associated with the elimination of all the causes of difficulties encountered in children when studying different school subjects. The CMB presents the test papers, there is a system for diagnosing the pupils of each class, with the help of the teacher traces the dynamics of growth of their wards, and also monitors the success of mastering new knowledge and skills. The authors of the new methodical program paid special attention to the formation of a positive emotional atmosphere in the education of junior schoolchildren, as well as the development of their independence and educational initiative.
The training methodology is designed so that each primary school student receives the right to make mistakes, self-assessment of his own work, analysis of learning outcomes. In the program there is for children a certain heading "Test yourself," and for the teacher there are special recommendations for organizing control over the work of schoolchildren. Each item included in the updated program has its own purpose.
The analyzed educational and methodological set "Elementary School of the 21st Century" was appreciated by the National Training Foundation. The program became a participant and winner of a serious contest, connected with the creation of new generation teaching aids for the Shelter. The Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation, having carefully studied all the materials, highly appreciated this method. UMK received public recognition, became the owner of various government and industry awards. So, in 2001 this set was recognized as the winner of the nomination "Textbook of the 21st century". The program was awarded at the 14th Moscow International Book Fair "Oscar". In 2002, the School of the 21st Century received a prestigious presidential award in the educational sphere.
Reviews about the set "Elementary School of the 21st Century"
Teachers who have passed all the steps of this program say that it is quite interesting and innovative. Teachers note its developing character, the presence in the textbooks of different levels of logical tasks. Among the features of this program are the integrated courses offered to first-graders in the first half of the year. For example, traditional subjects aimed at teaching writing, and mathematics are integrated into the course "Literacy". Guys master the training skills in mathematics and their native language. Parents are concerned about whether this program is too difficult for their kids.
The program analyzed for the primary school places special emphasis on carrying out a variety of diagnostic tests for students. The teacher, thanks to such actions, better understands the problems of his pupils, seeks ways to correct them, chooses differentiated work at the lesson, helps the child to build an individual educational trajectory. The student gets the opportunity to remove the accumulated stress, since the diagnostic work does not have the usual scoring system. UMK "Elementary School of the 21st Century" presupposes the implementation of the basic principle of modern education - taking into account the age characteristics of children.
The popularity of this kit is confirmed by the fact that in almost all regions of the Russian Federation primary school teachers work according to this program. Teachers who have chosen CMD, respond positively to it. Among its differences from other programs designed for primary school, let's outline the construction of a pedagogical diagnostic system from the first to the fourth class. This project is aimed primarily at the harmonious development of the student, his successful teaching. In this regard, the separate meaning is given to planned diagnostics, thanks to which the teacher monitors the individual characteristics of the wards, carries out a differentiated approach to each pupil.
Pedagogical diagnostics allows the teacher at the initial stage to identify the student's readiness for training. Further the tutor can understand, what level of mastering by the child of skills and skills, whether successful shifts have taken place. Based on the data received, the teacher decides whether to move forward or to repeat the educational material. In the process of such diagnostics, it is not so much the knowledge itself that is being tested as the way to solve a specific learning task. The advantages of this diagnosis are that the guys feel more free, they do not depend on the marks. In carrying out such studies regularly from the first to the fourth class, the teacher has a clear picture of the intellectual and creative growth of each child. This gives the mentor time to come to the aid of the schoolchild, attract parents.
Despite the difficulties associated with the implementation of the new program at the initial stage of training, its effectiveness and effectiveness are confirmed by time. Reviews about this pedagogical method are mostly positive, since it is based on an individual approach to children, the differential nature of the educational process. In connection with the transition of modern Russian education to new state educational standards, the urgency and relevance of educational methods involving cooperation between the student and the teacher is growing.