The Constitution of our country, the twentieth anniversary of which will be celebrated this year, is in many ways unique for us. This is unique not only because for the first time in its history, Russia has been officially recognized as a democratic and legal state, but also that the authorities that directly direct the management of local territories take a special role in building this state.
Local self-government is a complex of interacting institutions and mechanisms that allow residents of a particular village or city directly or through their representatives to manage this education, solve local issues that are of particular concern to each resident, participate in the development of their village, cities.
The main sources in which the subjects of jurisdiction and powers of local self-government are defined are the already mentioned Constitution, the European Charter defining the functions, principles and resources for carrying out the activities of local self-government, as well as the law of the Russian Federation regulating this sphere of government in 2003. In more detail, the powers of local self-government bodies are prescribed in various by-laws, statutes of these municipalities, as well as in acts of local authorities.
The main subjects of local government assume the following points:
1. Creation, adoption and strict implementation of the local budget; The introduction and abolition of taxes and various charges for the needs of the municipal formation.
2. Ownership of property that belongs to the jurisdiction of local authorities. Among other things, the powers of local government bodies presuppose the organization of supply of the population with electricity, water, heat and gas.
3. Construction and maintenance in proper condition of motor roads related to public transport arteries, with the exception of those trails that are the responsibility of the federal center.
4. Active creation of a local housing stock, including the construction of new individual and multi-apartment buildings, which should subsequently be used to provide housing for indigent citizens and those residents who by law can qualify for living space.
5. Provision of appropriate bodies with everything necessary to eliminate the consequences of various kinds of catastrophes and accidents, both natural and technogenic.
6. Local authorities should actively promote the organization of cultural and cognitive leisure of citizens, as well as the opening of the enterprises of trade, food, and service on the territory of this entity.
In addition to the above, the subjects of local government presuppose the active participation of local authorities in the preservation of monuments and archival funds, the collection and utilization of solid domestic waste, the creation of plans for the development of the territory of a particular locality.
In addition, do not forget that, based on the provisions of the Constitution, the terms of reference and powers of local government, regional authorities and the federal center are very clearly delineated. In particular, local authorities do not have the right to enter into contradictions with all-Russian laws in their activities, since the latter have greater legal force.
Disassembling the powers of local self - government bodies , for a more detailed analysis, they should be conditionally divided into political, economic and socio-cultural ones. The first group includes the responsibilities of local authorities to ensure the participation of the population in the management of this municipality, as well as the need to maintain public order and the rule of law in the given territory. The economic powers of local self-government bodies presuppose, on the one hand, the right to manage those land plots, enterprises, buildings and facilities that are in municipal ownership, and on the other hand, assistance in the development of local business and entrepreneurship. Finally, socio-cultural powers include the responsibility of local authorities to preserve and enhance local cultural heritage.