Are life-like planets like the Earth fantastic? The researchers suggest that such in the universe is not uncommon. Approximately around one of the five sun-like stars, in particular, observed from the astronomical satellite Kepler (NASA), there is a zone of habitat - an alleged cosmic territory, whose planets under certain circumstances could become habitable. The temperature on their surface contributes to the existence of water in the liquid phase (that is, does not boil and does not turn into ice).
Among the sparkling scattering of stars
The nearest planets are suitable for living, perhaps the most inviting. A star to which we are "near the door" (after Alpha Centauri) is located at a distance of 12 light years from Earth. It illuminates the planet Tau Ceti. For reference: 1 light-year is 12 terrestrial calendar months. In terms of distances - 9 460 000 million kilometers. By universal standards - nothing special.
For earthlings this is a fantastic distance. They do not yet have the opportunity to meet the representatives of the "far abroad" in person. Although human beings looked at the stars for thousands of years. And, probably, they thought: "Are there places among this sparkling placer that remind me of my land?"
In 1995, the first time they discovered a planet suitable for life. For most readers, its name is hardly familiar: PSR B1257 + 12 B, Gamma Cepheus star. After the discovery, the unusual price list began to replenish rapidly. Earlier, tracking the planet, experts focused on the radial velocity (the projection of the velocity of stars to the line of sight).
Climat is changing
Later, with instruments such as the Kepler telescope, they switched to studying the variations in the brightness of planets moving in orbits near their stars ("transit"). Repeated observations convinced the researchers: these are really celestial bodies, and not huge and cold dark spots.
New planets, suitable for life, began to find when astronauts used the method of statistical analysis. There was work with a huge amount of data. At one of the conferences in NASA, it was said that with the help of the Kepler satellite hundreds of potentially useful objects were discovered. And this is not the limit!
Let's try to figure out whether the exoplanets discovered by modern researchers really have a life, or they only partially meet certain criteria of habitability. We need a serious evaluation. It is not easy to make it: the distances are huge and beyond the capabilities of modern science and technology.
There is no life without water
Why is man looking for a planet fit for life? For the sake of curiosity? No. The climate on our unique, life-filled balloon is changing. Mankind is haunted by heat, frosts, floods, dust storms. All this can end badly. Our confidence in the vitality of only one Earth is not only a joy, but also a concern.
Political, financial, humanitarian, scientific reasons make us a biological species, extremely interested in habitation, as many planets as possible. New planets suitable for human life will allow us to understand the tendency of changes in terrestrial weather conditions, to determine the possibilities of survival in the future climatic conditions. Decide what to do in order to stop the deterioration of meteorological conditions, to find out what is the reason for such a strong dependence on carbon.
In this way, life-friendly planets will enable people to find cleaner sources of energy, stop worsening the climate for the sake of financial gain and comfort. Perhaps this will require new hardware platforms that will allow us to go on such a long journey.
Heat of Venus
Many people want to foresee what feelings they will feel when they meet with alien creatures, when they arrive on the planet, suitable for life. And so they are very interested in inhabited zones (they are also called "Goldilocks"), where there are celestial bodies with a moderate average surface temperature. This allows the water to be between the gaseous and solid aggregate states (only then you can "weld the porridge of life").
Planets, suitable for life scientists are looking for a long time and aggressively. Yes, humanity hopes to find extraterrestrial reserves of liquid in order to use them for practical purposes. However, H2O is almost the main indicator of the existence of extraterrestrial life in different galaxies and in the entire universe. Although there is a living problem outside the Earth.
There are celestial bodies, where it is hot as in the underworld. Under such conditions, some volumes of hydrogen and oxygen are produced. Oxygen combines with carbon to form carbon dioxide, and then hydrogen simply volatilizes into space. So it happened with Venus.
The Kingdom of the Snow Queen
There are planets where the Snow Queen probably rests. There it is always cold, the ponds are vast ice rinks. Under the ice cover, deep lakes with flowing water can hide, but they are still unsuitable for living. Such a picture is observed on the kings of the cold Mars, Jupiter, Saturn.
Is it permissible for them to be included in planets suitable for human life? No, here inhabited zone in a rough dimension: a place where theoretically "splashing waves". Unfortunately, not everything is solved by answering a simple equation with the distance to the star "in the numerator" and the amount of energy given out "in the denominator." The presence of the planet's atmosphere is of great importance.
In fact, Venus and Mars "live" in our native solar system. But the dense Venusian atmosphere is saturated with carbon dioxide, which catches energy from the Sun and creates an unfavorable effect of a red-hot furnace capable of destroying all life. And Mars?
In contrast to the hot symbol of love, on the militant symbol of the masculine, the atmosphere is so thin that it does not catch heat, so it's a frighteningly cold "bun." If the opposites have an earthly atmosphere (plus the presence of mountains with minerals) - they could be worlds that are quite suitable for the development and preservation of life.
If the antipodes "shared excess", one could soften the heat and melt the ice ... And the planets would be made suitable for life. However, this is only a fantasy. Talking about the possibility of the presence of other worlds in the Milky Way, we must understand: their location in the inhabited zone does not change the case if the shape and composition of the atmosphere of the planets are unfavorable.
They all revolve around the stars, called "red dwarfs." Even if you imagine that celestial bodies are suitable for human life, do not be too inspired to spend your time surrounded by landscapes in bloody tones. But the main thing: young dwarfs are extremely active. They happen huge solar flares and coronal mass ejections.
This inevitably has a devastating effect on the lives of any planets that are nearby, even if liquid water is present. The magnetic fields of such "raging suns" are so powerful that they can crush all "neighbors". But after several hundred million years of high activity, the red dwarfs calm down, and then stretch their fuel stocks of hydrogen by about a trillion years.
If life survives in the early stages of development, then it will have all chances for a long existence next to the calmed "Lilliputians". And new planets suitable for human life (the photo below) will decorate the Universe. Thus, in search of a new home among the stars or life in the universe, we realize that the inhabited zone is only an approximate landmark.
The coverage area of the Kepler spacecraft is 150,000 stars. Most are too bright to consider them. But the employee of the California Technical Institute Petigura and his colleagues were able to study 42,000 "hushed" stars and concluded: 603 planets could be included in the number of habitat candidates.
Seek and find
Suitable for life planets have different sizes. Ten of them within a radius of up to two times greater than the Earth. To compare the required radii, scientists used the Keck telescope, installed in Hawaii. Correct calculations were made, corrective amendments were made.
As a result, it turned out that about 22 percent of the sun-like stars have planetary satellites resembling the Earth in size, they are potentially suitable for life. We list some of the exoplanets.
The one mentioned in the beginning of Tau Kita E was discovered in 2012. It is located in the constellation of China. It is considered an unconfirmed candidate for habitable space objects. Period of revolution of the planet around the star (sidereal period) 168 terrestrial days. Orbit is near the inhabited zone. The surface temperature is on average 70 degrees Celsius (near the Earth - 15).
This "challenger" is located at a distance of 473 light years from Earth and bears the name Kepler 438b in the constellation of Lear. Refers to the Kepler star 438, which is 4, 4 billion years older than the Sun. The subdued red dwarf shines not too brightly, so it's not easy to make out the situation carefully.
Gliese and others
In suitable for life, the planet includes the unconfirmed "Madame" Gliese 667S E. It revolves around a star from the constellation Scorpio - it's a whole system: red and two orange dwarfs. The age of an "honest company" is from 2 to 10 billion years. It is located 22 light years from the Earth. The year is 62 days (earth days).
Kepler186f "cuts ellipses" near the red dwarf in the constellation Cygnus, to which 561 light-years. His star is not as big and hot as the Sun. The year is 131 terrestrial days.
Kaptein In "turns" at the star from the constellation of the Painter. It is larger than the Sun by a mass of 0.28 times, with a radius of 0.29. Dwarf is about 8 billion years old, before it is 13 light years. Kapteyn is an unproven exoplanet, the day on which lasts 48 terrestrial days. The radius is not calculated, five times heavier than the Earth.
We are waiting for distant worlds!
Wolf 1061C refers to the light from the constellation Ophiuchus. Rotates with his star synchronously. Therefore, one side is always hot, the other is cold. It is 14 light years away. Perhaps this is a rocky planet. The surface temperature is suitable for the existence of liquid water. The gravitational force (gravity) is almost twice as high as the earth's gravity.
This is not the whole list of promising puzzles! So "there are a lot of us in the universe, and we are in vests!" That's just to prove it is difficult, but personally to get - even more so. But we know: there are planets suitable for people's lives!