Important elements of any building are the floors. These are structures that divide the building into floors and separate them from cellars and attics. And every block of the house must have sufficient strength, since it has to withstand not only its own weight, but also the weight of furniture, equipment and people. And it is determined by the purpose of a particular room. So, for example, the strength of the attic floor can not be more than 105 kg / m 2 , and if it is between the floors, its strength should be at least twice as much - 210 kg / m 2 . Still its rigidity should be such that it does not bend under the load.
Even on what overlapping in the house, depends also on its soundproofing. Therefore, when laying them carefully, all the cracks that are in the places of joining the material are sealed. This avoids the propagation of sound in the house. A ceiling, which is between rooms with a temperature difference of more than 10 degrees, must still be insulated. This applies to the floor of the lower floor and the upper ceiling. Also, each floor overlap has its own threshold of fire resistance. For example, for reinforced concrete slabs, the limit of fire resistance is determined by one hour. A wooden floor, which is not protected by non-combustible materials, will burn out in less than 15 minutes.
And according to the structural features of the load-bearing part, the floor of the house can be girder and bezbalochnym. And in the second variant, the supporting structure is reinforced concrete slabs. And they on technology of erection can be monolithic, combined and assembled-monolithic. At the same time prefabricated floors are assembled from factory plates. A monolithic made on the spot, when the formwork is poured monolithic concrete. Also, these two types of overlap can be combined. That is, rectangular spans overlap with slabs, and spans of non-standard shape are poured with reinforced concrete.
Another overlap for the house can be a beam, that is, it is based on metal or wooden beams. And for them already lay the flooring. And in private construction, two types of such overlap are used. And the first option is the use of wooden beams, according to which the wooden flooring is usually laid. And in the second variant, a frequently-bridged overlap is made, which consists of metal beams, along which the flooring of small pieces made of ceramics or lightweight concrete is already laid .
A floor in a brick house can be made according to any of these options, for example, on wooden beams. But first they need to be treated with an antiseptic, then they fit into niches, and you should start from the opposite walls. These two beams are leveled, and their ends are laid with a brick. Then pull the cord over them and lay the rest at intervals of 60-70 mm. For these purposes, beams cross section of 40 × 150 mm. Then on their bottom from both sides stuffed bars section 40 × 40 mm, which are needed for the device of black floors. By the way, all wooden floor elements are pre-treated with an antiseptic.
Further on the boards lay the black floor boards. Instead, you can also use flat slate. Then there is a very important stage - the blocking of the house needs to be insulated. Therefore, on the boards or slate put pergamum, and on it a heater. Then the scaffolds for the finishing floor are installed. The insulator is covered with a peppermint. Then spread out the boards of the finishing floor, which is immediately undesirable to nail. We need them to lie on the beams for a while and dry up. Also on the beams the ceiling is stuffed, to which the strips of pergamene are nailed. The heater is laid on it. And now the floor of the second floor is already stuffed, across which also the parchment is laid.