### Automobiles, Cars

# Operation of engine cylinders

The order of the cylinders depends on their location and the mutual location of the cranks in the crankshaft. It is provided by the action of the gas distribution mechanism and the supply of fuel (in the carburetor engine - the ignition system), the ignition of the working mixture and the timely closing and opening of the valves.

**The order of operation of cylinders of four-cylinder engines**

At a cranked shaft all cranks are in one plane, thus two them are turned in one party, and others - in the opposite, that is an angle between the next cranks is 180 degrees. The pistons of the second and third cylinder go up in this arrangement, at the same moment the pistons of the fourth and first pistons go down. Naturally, it is inappropriate to start the working stroke simultaneously in two cylinders. Therefore, if it starts in the first, then in the fourth, the inlet should begin. At this time, the second cylinder may release or contract. In any arrangement of the crankshaft in one of the cylinders, the working stroke is realized. In each subsequent it begins after the previous exactly 180 degrees.

**The order of operation of cylinders in a six-cylinder engine**

In it crankshaft cranks are located in pairs, one to one at an angle of 120 degrees. Each subsequent pair of pistons after the previous one comes to a dead point again after 120 degrees. Flashes of cylinders occur at the same intervals. This order of operation of the VAZ cylinders has the advantage, which consists in that flashes in two neighboring ones do not occur successively. With this alternation, the best conditions for the operation of the crank-crank mechanism are achieved.

**The order of operation of cylinders of the V-shaped engine**

Cranks in the shaft can be located at an angle of 180 and 90 degrees. With two cranks connected by two connecting rods. One of them connects with the first piston of the cylinder, the other - with the second. The piston of the cylinder of the first row returns to the top dead point, in comparison with the second row, 90 degrees earlier.

**Procedure of cylinders of twelve-cylinder engines**

At any time, an expansion occurs immediately in three cylinders: it starts in one, then continues in the next and ends in the third. Due to this, a smaller change in the magnitude of the torque on the shaft and, correspondingly, a greater uniformity of stroke is ensured.

**The operation of the cylinders of the star**

The crankshaft has only one crank with which all connecting rods are connected. For example, the piston in the first cylinder is at the dead top point when the connecting rod and crank elbow are aligned. The second piston comes to this point after the angle of the crankshaft turns into an angle equal to the angle between the axes of the nearest cylinders. A uniform alternation of the working stroke is possible only with an odd number of cylinders. Therefore, in such engines, the number is always odd, and not more than 11. If necessary, in more cylinders they are arranged in several rows, each of which is in the same plane, working on a common crank.

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