Before talking about steels, let's define the physical meaning of the category of melting temperature. In the scientific and industrial sphere, this concept is also used as the temperature of solidification. The physical meaning of this category is that this temperature shows at what its value a change in the aggregate state of a substance occurs, that is, its transition from a liquid state to a solid state. At the very point of the temperature transition, matter can be either in one or in another state. When additional heat is supplied, the object or substance acquires a liquid state, and when heat is removed, it solidifies. This indicator is considered to be one of the most important in the system of physical properties of any substance, and it must be taken into account (it is especially important to understand with reference to steels) that the solidification temperature is numerically equal to the melting temperature only when we speak of an ideally pure substance.
As is known from the school program, the melting point of steel for different types of alloys is different. This is determined by the structure of the alloy, the components involved in it, the nature of the technological production of steel and other factors.
Thus, for example, the melting temperature of steel consisting of a copper-nickel alloy is approximately 1150 ° C. If we increase the nickel content in such an alloy, the temperature will rise, since the melting point of nickel itself is much higher than that of copper. As a rule, depending on the chemical composition of the alloy and the ratio of the components present in it, the melting point of steel can be in the range of 1420-1525 ° C, if such steel is to be cast into molds during metallurgical production, then the temperature must be maintained for another 100-150 degrees higher. An important factor that affects the melting point is the level of carbon in the alloy. If its content is high, then the temperature will be lower, and, conversely, vice versa - when the amount of carbon decreases, the temperature rises.
More difficult from the point of view of determining the value is the process of measuring the melting point in stainless steels. The reason for this is their complex chemical composition. For example, the steel grades 1X18H9, widely used in dentistry and electrical engineering, have in addition to the actual iron, carbon, nickel, chromium, manganese, titanium and silicon. Naturally, the melting temperature of stainless steel of such composition will be determined by the properties of each component entering it. From such steel are made cast teeth, crowns, various types of dentures, electrical parts and more. It is possible to list some of the properties that this stainless steel possesses, its melting point is 1460-1500 ° C, therefore, based on this parameter and the chemical composition of the alloy, special silver solders are used for its soldering .
One of the most high-tech in the modern production of types of alloys are various steels with the inclusion of titanium elements in their composition. This is due to the fact that these steels have almost 100% biological inertness, and the melting temperature of titanium-based steel is one of the highest.
Most steels contain iron as their main component. This is explained not only by the fact that this metal is one of the most widespread in the natural environment, but also because iron is a practically universal element for the production of steels of various grades and alloys, of which it is a part. This breadth of application is explained by the fact that the melting point of this metal, equal to 1539 degrees, combined with other unique chemical properties makes iron an appropriate component for a wide range of steel grades for various purposes.