Lip reform is the first attempt to create local self-government in Russia

The peasant uprising of 1547 clearly demonstrated the need for consolidation of the ruling class to stabilize the current situation in the country. With the arrival of new people in the government of Ivan the Terrible, a circle was formed, which is usually called the Elected Rada. Its representatives: A.F. Adashev, the priest Sylvester and Metropolitan Makarii - enjoyed the greatest influence on Ivan the Terrible, which enabled them to become the initiators of changes in the system of state administration.

Historical Context

The aggravation of the social struggle between the higher and lower classes is always expressed in the growth and increase in the number of uprisings and strikes. They can be suppressed only if all that disturbs the masses is completely or at least partially eliminated. Thus, in the XVI century, a lip reform was carried out, which transferred some functions of governors and volostels to representatives of the new post - the elders. To select them was decided from boyar children, and to help appoint prosperous peasants, which deprived the masses of the main "sponsors" in the fight against social injustice. Lip reform allowed the ruling classes to use the newly created bodies to suppress peasant and slave performances.


Ivan the Terrible entered the throne at the age of three, so the first years of his reign were associated with the struggle of various boyar factions for influence on the young Grand Duke. In 1538 the lab reform began to be implemented. It was directed against the governors, who interfered with Glinsky. On the territory of the counties, counties headed by the elders were created. Together with the Sotskys and the Titus, elected from the best peasants, they fought with theft and robbery, revealing "dashing people". The lip reform gave powers to the elders to carry out the investigation and execute the identified criminals, and in practice - just to punish the disliked. After the uprising in Moscow against the Glinski at the court begins to form a new government. In 1549, the king speaks in front of the capital's nobles and bishops with exposing abuses of nobles and vicegerents, with which the Ivan Ivan the Terrible's labial reform fought. This meeting was the first meeting of the Zemsky Sobor and was the beginning of new institutional changes.

The course of transformations

Already in the 1540s, lip reform was implemented in most regions of Russia, and the first letters refer to 1539. At the same time, a robbery order is being established in Moscow, which oversaw the activities of the new bodies. In the second half of the XVI, Russia becomes a caste-representative monarchy, which gives a further impetus to the development of labial organs and makes them original early analogs of modern local self-government. Thus, the labial reform of Ivan the Terrible set a precedent for further increasing the powers of the leadership of the counties, which helped reorganize the peasantry. In a hundred years, it is the elected headmen who will become the closest associates of the voivode.

Lip and Zemstvo reform is a natural continuation of the changes that have taken shape in society. Elected from the local nobility, the headman (often old service people) knew the customs and interests of their district much better, so they could more effectively manage the lands entrusted to them.

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