The exhausting wars throughout the turbulent 17th century, the weakening of the army and its inability to protect the state from enemy encroachments - all these factors together created the necessary conditions for the creation of another Russian army, which the regiments of the new system put in place.
For the first time to think about the creation of new troops it was necessary in a difficult and troubled period of our history - in the Time of Troubles, scorched by the terrible threat of foreign invasion. During this period of strife, foreign legionaries were hired in militia units to fight the Polish army. It was then that Mikhail Skopin-Shuisky, sincerely amazed by the well-coordinated actions of the Swedish infantry, steadfastly reflecting the attacks of the Polish hussars, decided to organize an army in a foreign pattern - Dutch and Swedish. The shelves of the new system, which consisted of militia peasants, were assembled in Novgorod and numbered 18,000 men. Educated their competent possession of weapons Belgian Christiom Somme, focusing on the tactics of fighting cavalry, in which a number of pikemen covered musketeers with squeaks - the main weapon of that time.
Even hastily trained, the regiments of the new system in September 1609 won several significant victories over the Poles: they broke through the Moscow blockade and returned several cities, having thrown the invaders back. But the Time of Troubles made adjustments to further events. After the poisoning of the Skopina-Shuisky army dispersed.
The strategic need to return Smolensk, given to the Poles, and the revival of a strong battle-worthy army was another impetus to the creation of new regiments in 1630. By the end of 1631, the Swedish and Dutch experts who had embarked on this difficult business had formed two regiments, each of which numbered 1,600 men. Initially, the recruitment of the regiments was planned to be carried out from the children of the boyars, but they were not interested in the infantry service, and it was decided to receive the Cossacks and the children of the archers in the army.
The command of the regiments was carried out mainly by foreign primary people. Each regiment, consisting of eight companies, was under the control of the colonel, lieutenant colonel, major and five captains. In the company there were 200 soldiers, of which 120 were musketeers and 80 were pikemen. The number of regiments rapidly grew: by the beginning of 1632 there were already 6 (9 thousand people).
Since the middle of 1632 the creation of the first Reitarsky regiment of boyar and noble children began, the number of which increased to 1,721 people by the end of the year.
The third stage
After several years, in 1638, the government resumed the formation of parts of a new model for the protection of the borders of southern Russia. Supervised the training of troops stationed in the Novgorod discharge, the royalist and general, the Englishman Thomas Daleyl.
The formation of the regiments led to the compulsory recruitment of datacenters, who served from spring to autumn, and for the winter were dismissed to their homes. This practice did not justify itself: the insufficient level of education related to large holidays affected. Therefore, in the years 1643-1648, some southern villages and villages were nationalized, and peasants were registered as dragoons.
Military reform of Alexei Mikhailovich
The middle of the 17th century in Russia was marked by an exceptionally important event for the country: under the decree of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich , a radical reform of the army began: the strengthening of the best parts of the old system - the elite Moscow local cavalry, Moscow archers and gunners, and the creation of combat units in the likeness of those already showing their military skills Regiments.
In the conditions of the Russo-Polish War of 1654-1667. It is these compounds that have become the strong foundation of the country's armed forces. The shelves of the new system under Aleksei Mikhailovich are soldier and dragoon units, manned from dacha people recruited for lifelong service. A nationwide service was introduced.
Reitarskiye regiments were formed not only from the datacasts, but also from impoverished or inferior noblemen, Cossack and boyar children. The noble hundred in full force were transferred to the ranks. A strategically important move was the selection of horse horsemen from the rector's squad - the hussar. The Swedish experience in conducting military operations and equipping a warrior was immensely useful, the similarity of Russian and Swedish cavalry affected. Impeccable training and excellent equipment of the hussars favorably distinguished these compounds among Russian cavalry.
Pride of Russia
Regiments of the new system in ser. 17c. Formed under the leadership of a well-trained officers.