Indirect and direct complementation: definition, distinction features, modes of expression
Any sentence in Russian consists of a grammatical basis, including the subject and the predicate (main members). In addition, the proposals may have secondary members (this applies to common designs).
It is known that each secondary term clarifies or disseminates the main word. They can refer to any other member of the sentence.
• Definitions answer the questions "Which? Whose?", Signify the sign or belonging of the subject. (Scarf (whose?) Of my brother.) A ladder (what?) Wooden Steps (what?) Of stone Did not fulfill the promise (which?) To return.) Can be matched (wooden step) or uncoordinated (step of wood).
• Circumstances respond to adverbial questions, explain words that have an effect or feature. (Work for how long?) Until sunset. Find (where?) In the room, happen (contrary to what?) Predictions).
• Addition. This sentence member (secondary) explains the leading word, indicates the object or person, that is, the object to which the predicate directs its action. The complementary questions are questions of indirect cases. (Telling (about what?) About the trip. Far from what? From the truth. Love (whom?) Parents. Be content (with what?) A part).
There are different types of additions. There are direct and indirect additions. Identify the species by using the case question to which they respond.
Direct addition is most often expressed by the nominal part of the speech, which stands at the main word in the accusative case, without any pretext. (We listened to (what?) Music .We saw (whom?) Friends).
If there is a negation, the direct complement can be expressed by the noun standing in the genitive case without a preposition. (The nurse did not leave a note.) She did not say a word.
If this member of the sentence partially covers the subject, then for its expression the genitive case denoting the part of the whole can be used. (The man drank (what?) Water. Cut him (what?) Bread).
When dividing the members of a sentence, it must be remembered that the direct addition answers exclusively for case-based questions. This is important, because with the addition is often confused circumstance of the time. In the design "The whole night read" the word "night" answers the question "how much?", Therefore it is a circumstance.
Indirect and direct complement can spread the most diverse parts of speech.
Indirect words are expressed by nouns, adverbs, numerals and other parts of speech.
• Fuzzy - refer to the verbs (Compote drink (from what?) From the glass. They talked (about what?) About love). Enigma additions are divided into direct and indirect.
• Primary and indirect indirect additions, examples:
In the kitchen, they threw dishes (n.). We always hope for good (substantivized adj.). To this (place.) All aroused increased interest. We waited a long time for two (numer.) From school. A brother and sister were sent for shopping (a nominal combination of words).
In our language, there are often constructions in which the indirect addition is expressed by an infinitive (The guests asked Ivan to sing).
Regardless of the mode of expression, the questions of complementation should always be correlated with the questions of cases (He was asked (about what?) To tell about himself).
Linguists have repeatedly talked about the need to separate the indirect complement and the definition (uncoordinated). In most cases, this distinction is possible. For example, if an indirect complement is expressed by a noun formed from a verb, the genitive case of the subject indicates an inconsistent definition (meeting of colleagues - colleagues meet, boarding liner-liner villages).
The genitive case of an object always indicates an addition (cleaning apples-harvesting apples, reading a book-reading a book).
However, it often happens that the parameters for distinguishing between an appendix and a definition (uncoordinated) can not be established (a member of a brigade, a battalion commander, a glass with compote, a message about the conference, a dream of the future). In these cases, the lack of clearly visible grammatical parameters for distinguishing the definition and addition gives the possibility of a dual interpretation.