EducationSecondary education and schools

How to remember what you read the first time: effective ways and recommendations

While I finished reading the paragraph - half flew out of my head ... Familiar? Almost all schoolchildren and students face this problem. The fact is that the human brain is not programmed for tooth-grinding, and most of what is written in the textbook, it generally perceives as noise - useless information that should not be kept in mind. But if you know how these mechanisms work, you can learn to control this process and understand how to memorize the read the first time.

Science of Memory

Before any information gets to our "hard drive", it goes through a complicated path and is subjected to multi-level processing. The German scientist German Ebbingauz studied and described these mechanisms first. He identified 4 main memory processes: memorization, preservation, reproduction and forgetting.

How is it better to remember what you read? In this case, the first two stages are of key importance. Therefore, they should be considered in more detail.

Memorization is the involuntary imprinting of what has affected the senses. At the same time, a certain trace of excitation caused by electrical impulses remains in the cerebral cortex for a time. In simple terms, everything that we see, hear and feel, leaves physical traces in our brain.

This can happen in different ways. In early childhood, the child's process of involuntary memorization is activated. We all store moments and facts that we did not try to remember: a walk in the park at 5, a first date, frames from your favorite movie ... An interesting phenomenon is that not all of us remember equally well. Why is this happening?

It all depends on the strength of the electrical impulses, so the best we remember are certain types of information:

  • Something that is of vital importance (pain when you hold your hand to the fire);
  • Unusual, bright events and images (a bright costume of the actor at the carnival);
  • Information that is related to our interests and needs (a recipe for a delicious dish);
  • Valuable knowledge necessary for our activities and implementation of the goals (the correct answers of the test).

At 90%, how well some information is fixed in memory depends on our perception. First of all, it is imprinted that which caused strong emotions (both positive and negative) or interest.

In addition, there is a deliberate memorization - just the process in which we consciously try to "write down" certain information, for example, dates from the history textbook or an important phone number.

Preservation is the process of processing, transforming and fixing new information in certain parts of the brain.

First, all the information falls into a certain "buffer", memory. Here the material is stored for a short time in its original form. But in the next stage the information is processed, it is associated with the already known one, it is simplified and goes into long-term memory. The most difficult thing is not to allow distortions, not to allow the brain to add non-existent facts or "throw out" the key points. Knowing all this, it is much easier to understand how to memorize the read the first time.

We set clear goals

Even if you read very carefully and thoughtfully, turning the page, you can hardly describe in detail what you just learned.

Even in the XIX century, the Yugoslav psychologist P. Radossavlevich conducted a curious experiment. The task that faced the subject was to memorize meaningless syllables. Usually this required a few repetitions. Then the goal changed - now it was just necessary to read what was written. The subject did this for as long as 46 (!) Times, but when the experimenter asked to repeat the series by heart, he could not do it. But as soon as I realized that they needed to be learned - it took only 6 times to look through the syllables to accurately retell them. What does it say?

To understand how to read, to read the memorized, you must necessarily set a clear goal - remember the material.

Here, too, there are tricks. The main goal should be divided into more specialized tasks. Simply put, you choose what to focus on. In one case it is enough to isolate the main facts, in the other - their sequence, and in the third - to remember the text verbatim. Then the brain will already create "hooks" when reading, which will help to memorize the necessary information.

Create a comfortable environment

And we continue to discuss how to memorize the read text the first time. First of all, it is worth looking around in search of "irritants". In a noisy audience or public transport, attention is dissipated, and sometimes you do not even realize what is written in the textbook.

In order to fully immerse yourself in the process, it is advisable to sit in a quiet room or find a secluded place somewhere in nature - where nothing will distract you.

It is desirable to do it in the morning, when the head is as clean as possible and the new information is digested much faster.

Discuss with friends

Although many people do not like retelling at school literature lessons, this is one of the most effective ways to better remember what you read. When you say what you read recently, the brain uses two channels of memorization and playback - visual and audible (auditory).

Even better, if you have an interlocutor, ready to support the discussion. During the discussion, key facts and arguments seem to be "hammered" into memory, staying there for a long time. In some countries, reading clubs are popular, the participants of which are going to discuss what they read and share their impressions.

Learning to read correctly

If you want to know how to learn to memorize what you read the first time, you should first work on reading techniques. Do not forget that visual memory plays a huge role in memorizing: you mentally "photograph" the page, and if you can not remember something - you just need to imagine it, and the necessary information will pop up in your head. But how to achieve this?

  1. Do not start at once to get a grasp of each word, but try to cover the entire page with a glance.
  2. Increase the speed of reading. It is proved that the faster a person studies a text, the more effectively information is acquired. Try to expand the focus area in order to "snatch" by sight not one, but at least 2-3 words. In addition, you can sign up for speed reading courses, where you will be taught to read diagonally.
  3. When you notice that you are distracted and missed a fragment, do not go back to him to reread. Such "jumps" interfere with the overall perception of the material. It is better to study the paragraph to the end, and then re-read it completely.
  4. Get out of the habit of mentally saying the sentences or moving your lips. Because of these childhood habits, the brain can not concentrate on the text, but spends part of the resources to support your "inner speaker".

In the first 3-4 hours will be unusual and difficult. But as soon as you rebuild, not only the speed of reading will increase, but also the amount of information that you will remember from the first time.

We write summaries

Another option, how to memorize the read the first time. If you do not just go over the eyes of the text, and work through the material and at least briefly write down the main points, then on these notes you can easily restore the necessary information in memory.

However, it is important to know what and how to note, because without a certain system you will simply get confused in a heap of fragmentary facts. Here are a few techniques that you can use:

  • Grouping . All material is broken up into small fragments, which are then combined according to some characteristics (subject, time period, associations, etc.).
  • Plan . For each part of the text (paragraph, chapter or section of the paragraph) short notes are created that act as strong points and help to restore the full content. The format can be anything: key theses, titles, examples or questions to the text.
  • Classification . It is issued in the form of a diagram or a table. Allows you to distribute various objects, phenomena or concepts into groups and classes based on common characteristics.
  • Schematicization. With the help of text blocks, arrows and simple pictures, the connections between various objects, processes and events are demonstrated.
  • Association . Each item of the plan or the thesis is correlated with a familiar, understandable or simply memorable way that helps to "resurrect" the rest of the memory.

In this case, try not to get carried away. Remember that this is not a full-fledged summary, but small pointers that will guide the thoughts in the right direction.

Top 5 Techniques for Active Memory

And now we turn to the most "tasty" and talk about how to memorize the read from the first time, even without preparation. Perhaps you have already come across the concept of mnemotechnics - these are a variety of techniques that allow you to acquire a large amount of information in a short time.

1. Visualization

When reading, you should be as vivid as possible to imagine all the events and phenomena described in the text. The more "alive" and emotional the pictures will be, the better.

2. Creative associations

Very few people know, but to invent them is a whole art. There are 5 "golden" rules that you need to follow to easily remember any information:

  • Do not think. Use the first image that came to mind.
  • Associations should have a strong emotional component.
  • Imagine yourself the main character (for example, if the lemon was lying on the table - try to "eat" it).
  • Add absurdity.
  • Make the resulting "picture" funny.

How it works? Suppose you are studying the direction of painting and want to remember what pointillism is. In short: this is one of the types of neo-impressionism, where the pictures consist of a number of bright points of the correct form (the founder is Georges-Pierre Sera). What kind of association can you think of here? Imagine a ballerina who smeared the pointes in the paint and, whirling in the dance, leaves on the stage a picture of multi-colored dots. Moves on and accidentally touches the jar of a jar of yellow sulfur, which falls with a loud rumble. Here are our associations: pointe shoes with bright spots - pointillism, and capacity with sulfur - Georges-Pierre Sera.

3. The method of repetition IA Korsakova

This method is based on the fact that we forget almost all of the information. However, if you repeat the material regularly, it will be firmly entrenched in the memory. What do you need to remember?

  1. New information should be repeated within 20 seconds after its perception (if it is a large text fragment - up to a minute).
  2. During the first day, retell the material several times: after 15-20 minutes, then after 8-9 hours and, finally, after 24 hours.
  3. To remember the reading for a long time, you need to repeat the text several more times during the week - on the 4th and 7th day.

The technique is very simple, but at the same time incredibly effective. Regular repetitions give the brain to understand that this is not just information noise, but important data that is constantly being used.

4. Cicero Method

A useful technique for those who want to know how to remember the information read in books. The essence is quite simple. You choose a certain "base" - for example, the situation of your apartment. Remember where your morning begins, what you do in what sequence. After that, to each action, you need to "tie" a piece of text - again, with the help of associations. So you will remember not only the essence, but also the sequence of presentation of information.

Suppose, by studying the paragraph on history, you can mentally "draw" scenes of battles on the bedside table or "send" Columbus to plow the expanses of the bathroom.

5. Method of pictograms

Prepare a blank sheet and a pen. Immediately in the process of reading you need to mentally mark the key words and moments. Your task is to come up with a small pictogram for each of them, which will remind you what was going on. Do not make schematic or, conversely, too detailed pictures, otherwise you will not be able to concentrate on the text and remember it normally. When you get to the end of the paragraph or chapter, try looking at the pictograms only, telling the text just read.

Similar articles





Trending Now






Copyright © 2018 Theme powered by WordPress.