Society is the next stage in the development of human civilization after nature. Both of these concepts can be considered as matter. However, society, unlike nature, is advancing towards the realization of its being. The stronger his progress, the more it is alienated from the original nature.
The concept of nature and society
Their unity and differences are determined by an inseparable connection: the society as a result of human interaction can go as far as it likes from nature, but still continues to depend and influence it in one way or another.
The most established definition of nature is the entire surrounding world, which includes a variety of forms and manifestations. It exists outside the human consciousness and does not depend on it, which makes it a unique objective reality. However, if we consider the interrelationship between nature and society, we have to separate them, and a very concise definition for the first concept is "everything that is not socium - part of the material world, consisting of natural conditions of existence."
In turn, society is an artificially created by man conditions for existence and development. It is called a social environment, which is correct, but not entirely correct, because the social is synonymous with the social. Karl Marx briefly defined the term as an interaction of people, which fully reflects the essence of society. A person lives in a society, communicates in it, creates a family and builds a career, creates works of art and culture, and enjoys its benefits, is an important element in the system of joint production of goods and services.
The society is described in two different ways: in the broad and narrow sense of the word.
- The first is part of the material world, which "is not nature".
- The second is a social group or a certain stage of development (historically).
It is easy to guess that within the framework of the topic under consideration, attention is focused on the first definition.
Society and Nature
It should be understood that the main difference between nature and society is that the former is natural, independent of people, which arose much earlier, while the latter is a purely social phenomenon. They say that the society is a detached part of the world. That is, its source is still natural, because it was created by people, biological beings.
Philosophical views on nature
There are two cardinally extreme, opposite points of view, expressing an opinion on nature as a system. One of them represents it as chaos, a kingdom of chance that does not obey the laws. And the other, on the contrary, argues that the rules by which everything natural interacts are very strict and precise, but also complex. That is why a person, being a part of it, obeys this domination, but can not fully understand it.
To the second opinion there is strong evidence in the form of a natural harmony of nature. No wonder people in their creations have always tried to imitate her: they were inspired by objects, took ideas, studied patterns, to use them for their own benefit.
It is interesting that, however, nature was not always perceived as the goal of man's productive activity. Antiquity sought to be with it a single mechanism, and to objectify it only as an object of observation.
Nature - the basis of society
From the point of view of influence on a person, the social costs above the biological one. But the ratio in considering the vital activity of each of these environments tends to favor nature. It becomes a natural basis.
Society, unlike nature, forms a behavioral psyche, acts as a behavioral factor for the development of the individual. But its life activity is inextricably linked with natural objects. Thus, nature is both an object of labor, and a treasury of objects of material production (for example, of the same minerals). If society does not suddenly become, it will continue to function. But not the other way around.
Contradictions of the relationship between nature and society
With the development of society, people are increasingly trying to begin to dominate nature. At present, it has acquired a planetary scale. But at the same time, the disharmony of these relationships is increasingly manifested.
For example, public reproduction often ignores only the fact that the statement "unlike nature, society is a system" is fundamentally wrong, given that nature is a holistic mechanism in which one element leads to another. Trying to influence only one part of the natural in a positive way, the famous "butterfly effect" leads to a negative in the other. The dialectical character of nature and the variety of its forms do not abolish the fact that it is one. And the harm done to her (sometimes deliberately, sometimes hindsightly stupidly), eventually turns into problems of the development of society itself.
The laws of nature and society: unity and difference
The objective effect of the laws of both nature and society, as well as the indisputable fact that under certain conditions they are necessary, explains their unity. It, in turn, manifests itself regardless of human desires and actions: both are realized outside the consciousness of the individual and humanity as a whole, they are in no way connected with whether they know about, understand, know or try to know.
The difference between the laws of nature and society is tied to time: in the first case they are eternal or, at least, long-term. In the second, this is a non-permanent phenomenon.
This is easily explained: the laws of society were created when it began its existence, and disappear with it.
The society develops under the influence of the life of mankind, which unconsciously creates new laws. Nature is quite capable of developing "on its own".
Unity is manifested:
- In genetics, since man is a part of nature;
- Structure, since society is a social form of the movement of matter;
- Functioning, since the existence of a society outside of nature is not possible.
The difference is observed among:
- Laws of functioning and development (under the influence of man / outside his influence);
- Natural rhythms;
- Levels of complexity.
Levels of difficulty
Society, unlike nature, is governed by the laws of a higher form of motion of matter. The lower form, of course, also exerts its share of influence, but does not determine the essence of social phenomena. Just as the laws of biology, mechanics and physics do not participate in the development of man as a person is the competence of social influence.
Society and Culture
Culture is the direct attribute of society. This phenomenon, which characterizes society, and is inextricably linked with it: one is impossible without the other.
It is also a determining factor in the topic under consideration: unlike nature, society creates culture. Consequently, this is a purely human phenomenon, a higher level of spiritual development. After all, only a person can create - just a biological being can not do such an act.
Culture is a unique phenomenon, the heritage of the ethnos and nationalities to which it belongs, a vessel for the storage of history, a means of self-expression. It has the property of reproducing itself. Man also acts as its creator, its custodian, its consumer and its distributor.
A high level of culture indicates a high level of development of society. And no matter how amazing the nature in its amazing harmony of the material plane, it did not grow to such a spiritual level - moreover, it does not evolve in this direction. No matter how multifaceted society and nature, the differences and similarities between these two concepts are reduced to culture.
At the same time, the interrelation of one with another is logically correct, and therefore incredibly stunning: nature is the basis of society, society is the basis for culture. And each of the individual concepts has the property of self-reproduction.
Thought and deed
Society, in contrast to nature, is progressing in a directed way. Man, acting as his main instrument, is called upon to comprehend the processes taking place in the society in order to make corrections in them. He has the right to do this, since he is directly a part of it, and, definitely, his creator. There are no similar privileges in the sphere of influence on nature. That's why when people say that society and nature have the following differences, they first of all remember about a person - a biosocial being, including both.
The interdependence of society and nature
The manifestation of the interdependence of society and nature is the ecological crisis. This has already been mentioned in this article: a person has not learned to use the unity of the laws of the two systems for the benefit not only of himself or of one of them, but also of both. He does not view nature as a holistic mechanism, and therefore his actions have a negative effect: irrationally used by society minerals, natural forces that a person can tame, but with which he can not cope. Ecological crisis is not only a problem, but also a key to its solution.