How is the stop arranged? Anatomy of human foot bones

The foot is the lower part of the lower limb. One of its sides, the one that touches the floor surface, is called the sole, and the opposite, the upper one - the back. A flexible, flexible and elastic arch structure with a convex upward motion has a stop. Anatomy and this form makes it capable of distributing gravity, reducing tremors in walking, adapting to irregularities, achieving a smooth gait and elastic standing.

It performs a supporting function, bears the entire weight of a person and, together with other parts of the foot, moves the body in space.

Feet bones

It is interesting that in the feet of a person a quarter of all the bones of his body are located. So, in one foot there are twenty-six bones. Sometimes it happens that the newborn has more by a few bones. They are called supplementary and usually they do not cause their owner trouble.

With any damaged bone, the entire mechanism of the foot will suffer. Anatomy of the human foot bones is represented by three sections: tarsus, plus and fingers.

The first section consists of seven bones, which are arranged in two rows: the posterior part consists of the heel and ramming, and the anterior one consists of a scaphoid, three wedge-shaped and a cuboid.

On each of them there are joints that connect them together.

Anatomy of the sole of the foot includes a metatarsus, which includes five short tubular bones. Each of them has a base, head and body.

All the fingers, except for the large ones, have three phalanges (the big one has two). All of them are essentially shortened, and on the little finger the middle phalanx merges with the nail in many people.

Joints of the foot

Anatomy of the joint is represented by two or more connected bones. If they get sick, then there is a lot of pain. Without them, the body could not move, because it is thanks to the joints that the bones can change position relative to each other.

In relation to our topic, the anatomy of the lower leg is interesting, namely the joint that connects the lower part of the foot with the foot. It has a block-shaped form. If damaged, walking, much less running will cause great pain. Therefore, a person begins to limp, transferring the main weight to the injured leg. This leads to the fact that the mechanics of both extremities is broken.

Another in the considered area is a subtalar joint formed from the connection of the posterior calcaneal surface with the posterior ramming surface. If the feet rotate too much in different directions, it will not work properly.

But the wedge-navicular joint can compensate to some extent this problem, especially if it is temporary. However, in the end, there may be a pathology.

Severe pain, which can be long-lasting, occurs in the metatarsophalangeal joints. The greatest pressure falls on the proximal phalanx of the thumb. Therefore, he is the most susceptible to possible pathologies - arthritis, gout and others.

In the foot there are other joints. However, it is the four named ones that can suffer the most, since they have the greatest impact when walking.

Muscles, foot joints

The anatomy of this part is represented by nineteen different muscles, due to the interaction of which the leg can move. Overexertion or, conversely, underdevelopment will affect them because of the ability to change both the position of the bones and tendons and affect the joints. On the other hand, if something is wrong with the bones, it will certainly affect the muscles of the foot.

The anatomy of this part of the limb consists of the plantar and the muscles of the shin.

Thanks to the first move the toes. Muscles, located in different directions, help to keep the longitudinal and transverse arches.

This purpose is also served by the muscles of the shins, which are attached to the bones of the foot by tendons. This is the anterior and posterior tibial muscles, the long fibula. From the bones of the lower leg originate those that unbend and bend the toes of the foot. It is important that the muscles of the lower leg and foot are strained. The anatomy of the latter will then be better expressed than with the constantly relaxed state, otherwise the foot may flatten, which will lead to flat feet.

Tendons and ligaments

Muscles to the bones are attached with the help of tendons, which are their continuation. They are strong, elastic and light. When the muscle is stretched to the limit, the force is transferred to the tendon, which can inflame if it is excessively stretched.

Ligaments are flexible, but inelastic. They are around the joint, supporting it and connecting the bones. When a finger is struck, for example, edema will be caused by a torn or stretched ligament.


Cartilaginous tissue covers the ends of bones at the location of the joints. You can clearly see this white substance at the ends of the bone of the chicken leg - this is the cartilage.

Thanks to him, the surface of the bones have a smooth appearance. Without cartilage, the body could not move smoothly and the bones should have knocked against each other. In addition, you would feel terrible pain because of their constant inflammation.

Circulatory system

On the foot there are a back artery and a posterior tibial. These are the main arteries that present the foot. The anatomy of the circulatory system is also represented by the smaller arteries with which they transmit the blood and then into all tissues. With insufficient oxygen supply, serious problems arise. These arteries are the most removed from the heart. Therefore, the violation of blood circulation occurs first of all in these places. It can be expressed in atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis.

Everyone knows that the veins bring blood to the heart. The longest of them runs from the thumb across the entire inner surface of the foot. It is called a large saphenous vein. On the outer side is a small subcutaneous. Fore and posterior tibial are deep. The small veins are occupied by collecting blood from the legs and passing it to the larger ones. Small arteries saturate tissues with blood. And the capillaries connect arteries and veins.

The image shows the anatomy of the foot. The photo also shows the location of the blood vessels.

Those who have problems with blood circulation often complain of swelling in the second half of the day, especially if much time was spent on their feet or after an air flight. Often there is a disease such as varicose veins.

If there is a change in skin color and temperature on the legs, and there are swelling, then these are clear signs that the person has problems with blood circulation. However, the diagnosis should in any case be made by a specialist, which must be addressed in case of the above symptoms.


Nerves everywhere transmit sensations to the brain and control muscles. The same functions have a stop. The anatomy of these formations is represented in it by four species: posterior tibial, deep peroneal, superficial peroneal and gastrocnemius nerves.

Diseases in this part of the limb can be caused by too much mechanical pressure. Nerve compression can, for example, tight shoes, resulting in swelling. This, in turn, will lead to squeezing, numbness, pain, or an incomprehensible feeling of discomfort.


After studying the anatomy of the foot, the structure of its individual organs, one can go directly to its functions.

  1. Due to her mobility, a person easily adapts to a different surface on which he walks. Otherwise, it would be impossible to do, and it would just fall down.

  2. The body can move in different directions: forward, sideways and back.

  3. Most of the loads are absorbed by this part of the foot. Otherwise, in other parts of it and the body as a whole, excessive pressure would be created.

The most common diseases

With a sedentary lifestyle, a disease such as flat feet can develop. It is transverse and longitudinal.

In the first case, the lateral arch is flattened and the forefoot of the foot rests on the heads of all metatarsal bones (in the normal state it should rest only on the first and fifth). In the second case, the longitudinal arch, respectively, is flattened, because of which the entire sole touches the surface. With this disease, the legs become very tired and feel pain in the foot.

Another common disease is arthrosis of the ankle joint. In this case, there is pain, swelling and crunching in this area. The development of the disease is the defeat of cartilaginous tissue, which can lead to deformation of the joints.

Arthrosis of toes is not less common. In this case, there is a violation of blood circulation and metabolic processes in the metatarsophalangeal joints. Symptoms of the disease are pain during movement, crunching, swelling of the fingers and even the anatomy of the toes (deformation) can be disturbed .

Many people know firsthand what a bump is at the base of the thumb. In official medicine, the disease is called valgus deformity, when the head of the phalangeal bone is displaced. At the same time, the muscles are gradually weakened and the thumb begins to lean toward the others, and the foot is deformed.

The anatomy of this part of the lower limb shows its uniqueness and functional importance. The study of the structure of the foot helps to treat it more carefully to avoid various diseases.

Similar articles





Trending Now






Copyright © 2018 Theme powered by WordPress.