Higher nervous activity. Reflexes

The brain is the central "department" of the nervous system not only of man, but also of vertebrates. It is formed by the accumulation of nerve and glial cells, as well as their outgrowths. The physiology of the brain is a complex process of interaction of structural components. The neural network produces and processes a huge number of electrochemical impulses. The brain is located in the cranial cavity , the dorsal is located in the vertebral canal. Higher nervous activity is a function exclusively of the brain. Only he controls the behavior of the organism in the environment. The lower nervous activity coordinates the work of internal organs, their interaction.

Everyone, of course, has a rich inner world, behavioral reactions, mental characteristics. Pavlov asserted that the higher nervous activity is conditioned by the work of the large hemispheres and subcortical structures, which ensure the interaction of the individual with the external world, help him to adapt to changes in the surrounding space. The scientist has established that in the basis of human behavior lie reflexes - conditional and unconditional (instincts). Thanks to them, the body specifically responds to external influences.

Hereditary unconditioned reflexes were formed in the process of evolution. Most of them are included in the work almost immediately after birth. Some are formed during the maturation of certain systems, for example, sex. Complex unconditioned reflexes are called instincts, although Pavlov insisted that there is no difference between them - the criterion of occurrence is the same.

Higher nervous activity was for the scientist the main object of study. As research was conducted, Pavlov established that in the cerebral hemispheres, under the influence of a constant stimulus, a special type of temporary connections is formed-the conditioned reflex, which is formed as the individual experience is acquired. There is a classification, according to which the SD are divided into:

  • Natural and artificial;
  • Simple and complex;
  • Somatic and vegetative;
  • Cash, trace, etc.

To make a conditioned reflex formed, conditions are necessary. First of all, SD is formed on the basis of BR, which is caused by an indifferent stimulus. The central nervous system should be formed and fully functional. Irritation should occur many times to form a dominant focus of excitement. The organism on the path of forming a conditioned reflex passes through the stages of acquaintance, development and consolidation.

The doctrine of reflex is the main theoretical model, thanks to which it is possible to carry out an analysis of GNI. In the reaction of the organism, the main mechanisms are singled out - the processes of excitation and inhibition, on which the emergence and fading of conditioned reflexes is based. Nervous processes are interrelated and interact with each other.

Often the higher nervous activity is defined as the higher nervous system. This is fundamentally wrong and, rather, illiterate. The nervous system in mammals can be central and peripheral, however, this is another story.

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