One of the main agricultural operations is called grinding - grinding the grains to the state of flour. The primary role in this process is played by crushers, among which the hammer mills occupy a leading position. The variety of raw materials with different physical and chemical properties requires the use of different types of similar equipment.
Principle of operation
The main working element of the equipment is the electric motor, which is connected to the rotor. On the shaft driven by the motor, the hammers are fixed by means of articulated links . The support of the elements is the frame, and the protection from the external influence is the metal case.
The work of mills is based on impact and abrasion. After starting and feeding the raw material, the rotor, rotating at a tremendous speed, creates an airflow that draws in and makes the grain rotate, the croup. Impact hammers, freely moving through a loose grain mass, hit the particles with working faces, thereby grinding them.
Features of hammer mills
Hammers are used in many branches of the agricultural sector, mainly in the process of making flour. Widely used it found in the livestock department - here with their help grind mixed fodders and prepare for the introduction of additives into the feed.
- Simplicity of design.
- High degree of reliability.
- Small size.
- Dynamism of operating modes.
- High speed processing of grain mass.
- Easy to maintain and use.
But the use of this type of equipment in some situations is inappropriate because of the high energy costs. This creates certain difficulties for small and medium enterprises.
Classification of hammer mills
Hammer mills are classified by several indicators. The first of these is power. According to it, all equipment is divided into equipment for private farms (up to 1.6 kW) and industrial crushers (up to 32 kW). The second important characteristic is the performance, which divides all devices into 5 standard sizes:
I. They are able to process 5-6 tons of products per hour, are used in large feed mills and for flour production.
II. Grind 2-3 tons of products and are used in district factories or feed mills.
III. The productivity is 1-2 tons / h, they are in demand in the food shops.
IV. Crush from 500 kg to 1 ton per hour of work, can be found at large livestock facilities.
V. Smel from 100 to 150 kg / h, used for making additives.
In addition, hammer mills can be subdivided into separate types due to the peculiarities of their design, the realized technology of grain grinding and the method of disposal of the finished product.
The production of hammer crushers is handled by both domestic and foreign companies. Both Russian and foreign technology has its own peculiarities and advantages, implemented technologies for improving quality and reducing production costs.
Hammer mills M-8 and DM
Let's consider separate models. The domestic hammer mill M-8 for a long time remains in demand in the agricultural sector. It has three modifications and is used for grinding grain, creating feed for livestock and threshing corn cobs. Its main advantage is the productivity, which is about 22 tons per hour.
A hammer mill for grain DM, as well as its modification of DDM, was widely used. Between each other the designs differ only in their dimensions and technical characteristics. A feature of this equipment is the fitness for maintenance - to access the main working elements it is enough to open a special hatch.
Reversible hammer mills
Popular users consider the A1-DDP and A1-DDR models as the most popular reversible crushers from the Russian manufacturer. Devices have some differences in design and technical indicators, but the principle of their work is the same. Such equipment is used mainly for grinding cereal and film cultures, meal.
Foreign grinding mills for fine grinding
The most popular in the whole world, judging by the buyers' feedback, is the Impact mill. The success of the device was guaranteed by its design, which has in its composition two annular chambers. The grinding process takes place in two stages:
- Grain mass falls into the hopper with hammers, rotating on a smaller radius - there is a preliminary grinding.
- A sufficiently crushed material "seeps" into the second chamber through the cells, where fine and uniform grinding is carried out.
Another quite popular example for small crushing was the unit of the Japanese company Kagawa. A constructive feature is the presence of blades in the form of two-edged wedges, which are equipped with guiding plates. They are located with packs of hammers and during work provide fine grinding of the products.
Another function of hammer mills
Not everyone knows that hammer mills have found their application in the mining industry, mainly for the processing of coal, peat, shale. Here they are used to bring raw materials to the consumer state.