Goats of dairy goats: description, photo. Breeding goats

Goat - unpretentious, cleanliness, very convenient and profitable animal for the household. Of course, she needs conditions of care, care and attention, even the fulfillment of some whims, for which she will pay a hundred times with the owner. Healing milk, delicious meat - that's what dairy goats are. Breeding them is a painstaking business, but not complicated, quickly recouped. The cost of food, the device of the stall is much smaller than that of a cow. It is easy to care for them, much time is not required. It is interesting to observe the behavior of goats. Children like to play with kids - this is a real circus at home.

The goat will feed and cure

Goat's milk is nutritious and dietary, analogous to the female breast. In it in comparison with the cow more protein, salts of calcium and phosphorus - the "building material" of the skeleton and teeth, it is fatter, and most importantly - hypoallergenic. Therefore, there is no better product than goat's milk, for artificial children, for people who are allergic to cow. In the old days, when there were no mixtures, which now are used for feeding babies, infants were given goat's milk. Also, elderly people who are experiencing problems with digestion of food respond favorably. Animal therapy (healing with the help of animals) recommends the establishment of a goat suffering from hypertension, stenotic or cholelithiasis. Milk and communication with the pet can cure these ailments.

For example, the usefulness of goats is far from necessary. Let's remember Robinson. With goats, he was full, dressed and shod, communication with them brightened up long years of loneliness in a foreign land. The dairy goat is traditionally called the "cow of the poor". But in recent years, goat's milk is valued more expensive than cow's milk, besides it is rarely found on sale.

Numerous tribe

Goats are one of the first pets with a long service to a person - 9000 years. On a productive direction they are divided into 5 groups: wool, downy, meat, dairy and mixed (wool, down, meat and milk). On each continent there are representatives of a small-horned tribe of different purposes. In Southeast Asia, mainly goats are grown for meat, in the mountains of Altai frolic feathers. In Europe, mainly breed goats of dairy. They contain not only the population for milk and for cooking products from it. There are many goat farms that supply raw materials to the food industry. For others, specialization is the breeding of goats for sale. Continue Breeding experiments to improve the quality of milk and the constitution of animals, the breeding of new breeds.

Consider the breeds of goat dairy - the most productive and more adapted to cold winters, not African Nubian goats. These are the Zaanen, Toggenburg, Alpine (Swiss, French, British), Megrelian and Gorki dairy goats. The photo of each representative is accompanied by a list of signs of the exterior, a characteristic of productivity.

Zaanen Goats

Common and the most outstanding of the breed of goat dairy - zanaen. Their homeland is the Zaanenthal Valley in Switzerland. Breeding of the breed in mountain alpine meadows with an excellent climate lasted several centuries. It was first exhibited in Paris in 1856, under the name of the goat, the Zaanen white hornless. Gradually, the breed spread in European countries, where it was exported to improve the milkness of local goats.

In the world these are the largest goats: the pedigree queen with a height at the withers of 75-80 cm (sometimes 85), their live weight is 60 kg (some individuals are 90 kg); Goat-makers in height at the withers of 82-86 cm weigh from 70 kg (some 100 kg). Newborn goats average 3 kg, goats - more than 4 kg. At 2 months their weight reaches 10 kg in goats and 12 kg in goats. One-year-old goats for 30 kg, goats to 35-40.

Exterior of the Zaanen goat

Appearance - a sample of the goat milk. The constitution is dense or tender dense, the skeleton (skeleton) is sturdy with moderately developed muscles. Skin strong and thin, covered with awn without fluff undercoat. The head is dry, the middle one, the hummock, the ears are pointed forward and slightly to the sides. The neck is long, sometimes with "earrings". The body is deep, long, wide enough. The legs are strong, set correctly. Hooves are light yellow. The color is white. On the skin of the ears, udder, sometimes black pigmentation in the form of spots. A good supply of ball-shaped or pear-shaped udders with well-developed nipples.

Lactation up to 330 days a year. Yalovye goats are milked continuously for several years. A yield of 600 or more liters per lactation with a fat content of milk of at least 4%. The record in 3507 liters is not yet defeated. Dairy goats must be kept away from the goat manufacturer, otherwise the milk will taste bad and smell.

Zaanen goats are prolific, early-ripening and hardy. In the absence of a closely related covering, the pedigree features are transmitted to the offspring in full.

Goats from Toggenburg

In the 18th century, the Swiss by the method of national selection created the Toggenburg goat breed. Over the next three centuries, as a result of crossing this breed with representatives of local breeds in different countries, the brown Czech, noble Toggenburg, the British Toggenburg goats are brought out. In Russia, individual Togenburg goats first entered the beginning of the last century.

The exterior of the breed stands out with a brown color, but there are spotted animals. Toggenburg goats are recognized by a distinct sign - white markings: two stripes parallel to the muzzle, a rim of the ears along the edges, the lower part of the tail and legs from the hooves to the hocks are also white. The constitution is strong and dry, the trunk of a harmonious constitution with a height at the withers of 0.6 m. An elongated head on a long neck. Straight slightly flat profile. Toggenburg goats are lumpy, goats with horns, but there are also hornless ones. Straight back, convex edges. The limbs are of moderate length, set correctly, the hooves are firm and stable. Sacrum wide, udder large. The coat is silky, it grows up to 20 cm on the back and hips. The weight of the producers is up to 70 kg, in the queens up to 55 kg.

The Toggenburg breed of goats is fertile (usually 2-3 in the offspring of the goat), it is easy to acclimatize to winter and mountain conditions, prefer coolness and shade in the summer, but it is demanding for the ration of feeding, on which the taste of milk depends.

Lactation up to 300 days a year. Milk at the first goat 500 l, with subsequent lambing lodges grow to 1000 l without reducing the volume in the winter. Fat in milk is 3-4%. Cheese of excellent taste.

Goats of the Alpine breed

Breeding of animals of this breed began in the mountainous regions of Switzerland using the method of national selection. Then the selection continued in France and England. There Swiss Swiss alpine goats were exported and crossed with the best local breeds.

Common "alpine" features

Large animals: at the age of 4 years, a goat at the withers with a height of 76 cm, weighing 61 kg, a goat - 81 cm and 77 kg. The neck is long, the head is dry with erect ears, the profile is straight. There are comola and horned. Milk productivity and fertility are high - from 1200 to 1600 liters of milk per year with good feeding and favorable conditions, several goats in one lamb. Milk is delicious, fat (up to 5.5%) and nutritious (protein 3%).

Alpine goats are unpretentious to the diet, adapt quickly to new climatic conditions, they are eager to become leaders in the herd (they need to be careful not to beat others off the feeders), they are easy-witted, they are friendly to the owner. Alpine breeds of dairy goats are irreplaceable in the mountainous terrain - they are graceful and dexterous, real "climbers" and will get their food there where the cow does not climb, and in the evening they will bring milk to the owner. Of course, the yield will be less, but what is useful, created from medicinal plants. These goats are also suitable for stabling.

Distinctiveness of color

Swiss, engaged in the cultivation of alpine goats, joke that with every goat they receive a "multi-colored gift" - such colored ones are born kids. Classical colors are the "white neck" - the head and up to the middle of the body white, and the rest - gray or black, or "red neck" - brown head-neck-shoulders and black color of the back. There are motley (white patches on a black background and vice versa), brown with black spots, brown with a black stripe along the ridge and black legs. There are also such goats - from the head to the middle of the trunk black, and then to the tail white. Very white color and brown for the Alpine goat breed are not considered - this suit is characteristic for the Zaanen and Toggenburg breeds.

Alpine species

Alpine French goats are dairy, the photo of which is presented to the reader on the slopes of the French Alps from the best local breeds, crossed with thoroughbred Swiss wolfhounds. Adapted to the conditions of the mountains. The suit is different - white, spotted, under the color of chamois. There are with horns and without them. Average productivity up to 900 liters from lambing to lambing. In France, some hold a population of 1,000 goats. Selection work is carried out to improve the composition of milk and the suitability of animals for machine milking.

The British Alpine breed, often called the black Toggenburg, was registered at the beginning of the last century in England. Purely black suit with white "Swiss marks" - strips on the muzzle, edging of the ears, "stockings" on the legs, "podboyka" at the bottom of the tail. The goat is tall and slim, light long head on an elegant neck, standing ears are slightly directed forward. Daily milk yield up to 4.5 liters.

Goat Dairy Species in Russia

A worthy representative is the Gorky goat. The history of the appearance of the breed is not exactly established. But it is known that the ancestors of her were Russian white dairy goats and foreign women, introduced at the beginning of the last century in the Nizhny Novgorod province, called in the Soviet era Gorkovskaya, why the name of the breed. Currently, these goats contain the population and farms of peasant farmers in the Nizhny Novgorod region. Among domestic Russian breeds it is considered the best and diligence of people's breeders continues to develop in the direction of dairy productivity.

Exterior of the Gorky goat is similar to the Zaanen, but the animals are slightly smaller in size and weight: goats up to 50 kg, goats are massive - 60 and more kg in live weight. Characteristic of the white suit with short hair and undercoat - up to 10% down. In different parts of the body, wool is of different density and length. Fertility is good: usually a goat brings 2 kid, but there are cases of goats at 4-5 kids.

Lactation up to 10 months per year with an average denting during this time of 500 liters. With good care, milk yields reach 1000 liters and more. After a goat half a year, daily milk yields keep in one volume, then noticeably decrease.

From goats get fluff - up to 250 grams per hectare, an excellent goat, used for high-quality chevron skin.

Popular pedigree dairy goats, whose price, frankly speaking, is fantastic (a purebred goat monthly costs 30 and more thousand rubles), not everyone is available. Beginners can be advised: buy an inexpensive Gorky goat, adapted to the cold, unpretentious to feed, prolific and with good productivity of tasty and fatty milk.

Megrelian goat

In the west of Georgia, in Megrelia, dairy goats of Megrelian lowland and mountain type are bred. On a flat terrain, residents of settlements keep the first type on the leash and in stalls. They feed them with harvested plant food, waste from fruits and vegetables. Goats of low-lying type are small, the average weight of queens at the withers of 60 cm is 33-37 kg, the goats are larger and heavier - under 50 kg. For 200 days of lactation from a goat, milk is given an average of 300 liters of milk, the record holders are given 750 each. Fecundity is small: only 20 out of 100 queens are brought by two kid, the rest one by one.

Mountain goats are larger than their counterparts, with a strong constitution and a rough skeleton, more massive. Weight of goats up to 50 kg, goats up to 70 kg. They graze in high-mountain pastures from spring until late autumn, during winter time they are descended from the peaks to mountain valleys, where they are kept at the forage. Productivity on the average from 200 to 250 liters for a half-year lactation. Fecundity is small - 110 kids from 100 queens.

The suit of Megrelian goats is white, red and gray. Short coat rough. All animals with well-developed curved horns in the form of the letter S on a somewhat elongated head, with medium-length beards.

Mingrelian goats are resistant to diseases. The transfer of these goats to other areas will improve the endurance and productivity of goats of local breeds.

Breeding goats

Adult pedigree goats on the tribe are difficult to find and they will have to pay dearly for them. You can go another way - to select goats and goats from pedigreed parents in different farms, fulfilling the most important rule - the prohibition of closely related crosses. It is most reliable to contact breeders of pedigree goats. Do not forget the good old rule: expensive and cute, and once cheap - you know, "trick" may not work.

Examine the goat-maker and goat-mother - the pedigree signs they must be explicit. The seller's words about the high productivity of the uterus, check in practice - let them give you a goat in your presence. Try the milk for taste and smell.

Kids from lambing, in which there were more than two of them, are unsuitable. Particular attention to the future manufacturer. The goat on the tribe must be an athlete. Check the development of the genitalia of kids.

Ask the seller how the feeding took place. Important: up to the age of two months goat mother's milk should be their main food. Growth and development are judged by weight, appetite, appearance, the condition of the coat and the speed of the object of sale.

And then the kids came to a permanent place of detention. The rest (successful breeding) depends on proper feeding and caring for animals.

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