Functional styles of Russian language
The ability to determine the style of the text is the first level of mastering the style, the initial stage of mastering the concept of style.
Style is a speech concept, but it is possible to define it correctly only by going beyond the boundaries of the linguistic system, taking into account such circumstances as the tasks of speech, the sphere of communication. Given these factors, these or other functional styles of the Russian language are formed.
Each of us in his life uses various functional kinds of speech. As a result, in the minds of people, the principles for selecting language facilities are formed in accordance with the conditions and tasks of communication, leading trends in style, internal attitudes toward the use of certain units of language.
The style stratification of speech begins with the delineation of the most contrasting types. Such, undoubtedly, are the conversational type of speech, the core of which is spoken style, and the opposing literary type of speech that unites all the other functional styles of the Russian language (artistic, scientific, journalistic, official). This delimitation is based on several factors, of which the main one is the sphere of communication. The sphere of individual consciousness forms a colloquial style, and the sphere of social consciousness is the functional styles of the Russian literary language.
Differences between spoken and literary speech are largely determined by its form, oral or written. Although all the functional styles of the Russian language can be realized in one form or another of speech, the probability of these realizations in different forms is different. For all literary styles, written language is more often used, for spoken language - oral. The usual form of communication leaves an imprint on the structure of the style. For a better understanding of the specifics, a system of functional styles of the Russian language has been developed.
1. Conversational - used in an informal setting one on one for the purpose of communication (talk). Main features: vagueness, ease.
2. Scientific - used in a formal setting, presupposes the presence of a large audience. The purpose of speech is the message (to explain). Main features: logicality, accuracy, abstractness.
3. Official-business - used in an official setting, assumes the presence of a large audience. The purpose of speech is to inform (instruct). Main features: impassivity, accuracy, officiality.
4. Publicistic - used in an official setting, presupposes the presence of a large audience. The purpose of speech is to influence (convince). The main features: emotionality, recruiting.
5. Artistic - used in an official setting, presupposes the presence of a large audience. The purpose of speech is to influence. The main features: emotionality, imagery, logic.
Some peculiarities of the communication situation are common for official, business, artistic, journalistic styles: these functional styles of the Russian language are used when addressing many people at once, usually in an official setting and mostly in writing. Therefore, these four styles constitute the literary (book) type of speech. He contrasted the conversational type (conversational style), which is used in communicating with one or several familiar persons, in a relaxed, informal atmosphere and mostly orally.
The system reveals the dependence of the type and functional style of speech on the characteristics of the speech situation, it helps to understand why functional styles of literary Russian have these or other features. On its basis, it is easy to make a description of the functional style of speech (the style model), including four main features: the scope of the utterance, the task of speech, language tools, style features.